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Title: High capacity hydrogen storage nanocomposite materials

Abstract

A novel hydrogen absorption material is provided comprising a mixture of a lithium hydride with a fullerene. The subsequent reaction product provides for a hydrogen storage material which reversibly stores and releases hydrogen at temperatures of about 270.degree. C.

Inventors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1413273
Patent Number(s):
9,840,412
Application Number:
14/532,045
Assignee:
SAVANNAH RIVER NUCLEAR SOLUTIONS, LLC (Aiken, SC) SRS
DOE Contract Number:
AC09-08SR22470
Resource Type:
Patent
Resource Relation:
Patent File Date: 2014 Nov 04
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
08 HYDROGEN; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Zidan, Ragaiy, and Wellons, Matthew S. High capacity hydrogen storage nanocomposite materials. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Zidan, Ragaiy, & Wellons, Matthew S. High capacity hydrogen storage nanocomposite materials. United States.
Zidan, Ragaiy, and Wellons, Matthew S. Tue . "High capacity hydrogen storage nanocomposite materials". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1413273.
@article{osti_1413273,
title = {High capacity hydrogen storage nanocomposite materials},
author = {Zidan, Ragaiy and Wellons, Matthew S.},
abstractNote = {A novel hydrogen absorption material is provided comprising a mixture of a lithium hydride with a fullerene. The subsequent reaction product provides for a hydrogen storage material which reversibly stores and releases hydrogen at temperatures of about 270.degree. C.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Dec 12 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Tue Dec 12 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Patent:

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  • A novel hydrogen absorption material is provided comprising a mixture of a lithium hydride with a fullerene. The subsequent reaction product provides for a hydrogen storage material which reversibly stores and releases hydrogen at temperatures of about 270.degree. C.
  • Complex hydrides based on Al(BH.sub.4).sub.3 are stabilized by the presence of one or more additional metal elements or organic adducts to provide high capacity hydrogen storage material.
  • The disclosure relates to a plasmon resonance-based method for H.sub.2 sensing in a gas stream at temperatures greater than about 500.degree. C. utilizing a hydrogen sensing material. The hydrogen sensing material is comprised of gold nanoparticles having an average nanoparticle diameter of less than about 100 nanometers dispersed in an inert matrix having a bandgap greater than or equal to 5 eV, and an oxygen ion conductivity less than approximately 10.sup.-7 S/cm at a temperature of 700.degree. C. Exemplary inert matrix materials include SiO.sub.2, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, and Si.sub.3N.sub.4 as well as modifications to modify the effective refractive indices through combinations and/ormore » doping of such materials. At high temperatures, blue shift of the plasmon resonance optical absorption peak indicates the presence of H.sub.2. The method disclosed offers significant advantage over active and reducible matrix materials typically utilized, such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or TiO.sub.2.« less
  • The objective of this three-phase project is to develop synthesis and hydrogen extraction processes for nitrogen/boron hydride compounds that will permit exploitation of the high hydrogen content of these materials. The primary compound of interest in this project is ammonia-borane (NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}), a white solid, stable at ambient conditions, containing 19.6% of its weight as hydrogen. With a low-pressure on-board storage and an efficient heating system to release hydrogen, ammonia-borane has a potential to meet DOE's year 2015 specific energy and energy density targets. If the ammonia-borane synthesis process could use the ammonia-borane decomposition products as the starting rawmore » material, an efficient recycle loop could be set up for converting the decomposition products back into the starting boron-nitrogen hydride. This project is addressing two key challenges facing the exploitation of the boron/nitrogen hydrides (ammonia-borane), as hydrogen storage material: (1) Development of a simple, efficient, and controllable system for extracting most of the available hydrogen, realizing the high hydrogen density on a system weight/volume basis, and (2) Development of a large-capacity, inexpensive, ammonia-borane regeneration process starting from its decomposition products (BNHx) for recycle. During Phase I of the program both catalytic and non-catalytic decomposition of ammonia borane are being investigated to determine optimum decomposition conditions in terms of temperature for decomposition, rate of hydrogen release, purity of hydrogen produced, thermal efficiency of decomposition, and regenerability of the decomposition products. The non-catalytic studies provide a base-line performance to evaluate catalytic decomposition. Utilization of solid phase catalysts mixed with ammonia-borane was explored for its potential to lower the decomposition temperature, to increase the rate of hydrogen release at a given temperature, to lead to decomposition products amenable for regeneration, and direct catalytic hydrogenation of the decomposition products. Two different approaches of heating ammonia-borane are being investigated: (a) 'heat to material approach' in which a fixed compartmentalized ammonia-borane is heated by a carefully controlled heating pattern, and (b) 'material to heat approach' in which a small amount of ammonia-borane is dispensed at a time in a fixed hot zone. All stages of AB decomposition are exothermic which should allow the small 'hot zone' used in the second approach for heating to be self-sustaining. During the past year hydrogen release efforts focused on the second approach determining the amount of hydrogen released, kinetics of hydrogen release, and the amounts of impurities released as a function of AB decomposition temperature in the 'hot zone.'« less
  • An electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier which comprises an anode layer, a cathode layer, and an intermediate electrolyte layer, which is conductive to protons and substantially impermeable to hydrogen. A catalytic metal present in or adjacent to the anode layer catalyzes an electrochemical reaction that converts any hydrogen that diffuses through the electrolyte layer to protons and electrons. The protons and electrons are transported to the cathode layer and reacted to form hydrogen. The hydrogen diffusion barrier is applied to a polymeric substrate used in a storage tank to store hydrogen under high pressure. A storage tank equipped with themore » electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier, a method of fabricating the storage tank, and a method of preventing hydrogen from diffusing out of a storage tank are also disclosed.« less