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Title: Tracking Internal Temperature and Structural Dynamics during Nail Penetration of Lithium-Ion Cells

Abstract

Mechanical abuse of lithium-ion batteries is widely used during testing to induce thermal runaway, characterize associated risks, and expose cell and module vulnerabilities. But, the repeatability of puncture or 'nail penetration' tests is a key issue as there is often a high degree of variability in the resulting thermal runaway process. Here, the failure mechanisms of 18650 cells punctured at different locations and orientations are characterized with respect to their internal structural degradation, and both their internal and surface temperature, all of which are monitored in real time. The initiation and propagation of thermal runaway is visualized via high-speed synchrotron X-ray radiography at 2000 frames per second, and the surface and internal temperatures are recorded via infrared imaging and a thermocouple embedded in the tip of the penetrating nail, respectively. The influence of the nail, as well as how and where it penetrates the cell, on the initiation and propagation of thermal runaway is described and the suitability of this test method for representing in-field failures is discussed.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [2];  [2]
  1. Univ. College London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center
  2. Univ. College London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering
  3. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRP), Grenoble (France)
  4. National Physical Lab., Middlesex (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
British Research Council, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC); Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)
OSTI Identifier:
1412833
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5400-68877
Journal ID: ISSN 0013-4651; TRN: US1800370
Grant/Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of the Electrochemical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 164; Journal Issue: 13; Journal ID: ISSN 0013-4651
Publisher:
The Electrochemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; lithium ion batteries; nail penetration; x-ray imaging

Citation Formats

Finegan, Donal P., Tjaden, Bernhard, M. M. Heenan, Thomas, Jervis, Rhodri, Michiel, Marco Di, Rack, Alexander, Hinds, Gareth, Brett, Dan J. L., and Shearing, Paul R. Tracking Internal Temperature and Structural Dynamics during Nail Penetration of Lithium-Ion Cells. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1149/2.1501713jes.
Finegan, Donal P., Tjaden, Bernhard, M. M. Heenan, Thomas, Jervis, Rhodri, Michiel, Marco Di, Rack, Alexander, Hinds, Gareth, Brett, Dan J. L., & Shearing, Paul R. Tracking Internal Temperature and Structural Dynamics during Nail Penetration of Lithium-Ion Cells. United States. doi:10.1149/2.1501713jes.
Finegan, Donal P., Tjaden, Bernhard, M. M. Heenan, Thomas, Jervis, Rhodri, Michiel, Marco Di, Rack, Alexander, Hinds, Gareth, Brett, Dan J. L., and Shearing, Paul R. 2017. "Tracking Internal Temperature and Structural Dynamics during Nail Penetration of Lithium-Ion Cells". United States. doi:10.1149/2.1501713jes. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1412833.
@article{osti_1412833,
title = {Tracking Internal Temperature and Structural Dynamics during Nail Penetration of Lithium-Ion Cells},
author = {Finegan, Donal P. and Tjaden, Bernhard and M. M. Heenan, Thomas and Jervis, Rhodri and Michiel, Marco Di and Rack, Alexander and Hinds, Gareth and Brett, Dan J. L. and Shearing, Paul R.},
abstractNote = {Mechanical abuse of lithium-ion batteries is widely used during testing to induce thermal runaway, characterize associated risks, and expose cell and module vulnerabilities. But, the repeatability of puncture or 'nail penetration' tests is a key issue as there is often a high degree of variability in the resulting thermal runaway process. Here, the failure mechanisms of 18650 cells punctured at different locations and orientations are characterized with respect to their internal structural degradation, and both their internal and surface temperature, all of which are monitored in real time. The initiation and propagation of thermal runaway is visualized via high-speed synchrotron X-ray radiography at 2000 frames per second, and the surface and internal temperatures are recorded via infrared imaging and a thermocouple embedded in the tip of the penetrating nail, respectively. The influence of the nail, as well as how and where it penetrates the cell, on the initiation and propagation of thermal runaway is described and the suitability of this test method for representing in-field failures is discussed.},
doi = {10.1149/2.1501713jes},
journal = {Journal of the Electrochemical Society},
number = 13,
volume = 164,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month =
}

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  • At DIII-D, lithium granules were radially injected into the plasma at the outer midplane to trigger and pace edge localized modes (ELMs). Granules ranging in size from 300 to 1000 microns were horizontally launched into H-mode discharges with velocities near 100 m/s, and granule to granule injection frequencies less than 500 Hz. While the smaller granules were only successful in triggering ELMs approximately 20% of the time, the larger granules regularly demonstrated ELM triggering efficiencies of greater than 80%. A fast visible camera looking along the axis of injection observed the ablation of the lithium granules. We used the durationmore » of ablation as a benchmark for a neutral gas shielding calculation, and approximated the ablation rate and mass deposition location for the various size granules, using measured edge plasma profiles as inputs. In conclusion, this calculation suggests that the low triggering efficiency of the smaller granules is due to the inability of these granules to traverse the steep edge pressure gradient region and reach the top of the pedestal prior to full ablation.« less
  • At DIII-D, lithium granules were radially injected into the plasma at the outer midplane to trigger and pace edge localized modes (ELMs). Granules ranging in size from 300 – 1000 microns were horizontally launched into H-mode discharges with velocities near 100 m/sec, and granule to granule injection frequencies less than 500 Hz. While the smaller granules were only successful in triggering ELMs approximately 20% of the time, the larger granules regularly demonstrated ELM triggering efficiencies of greater than 80%. A fast visible camera looking along the axis of injection observed the ablation of the lithium granules. The duration of ablationmore » was used as a benchmark for a neutral gas shielding calculation, and approximated the ablation rate and mass deposition location for the various size granules, using measured edge plasma profiles as inputs. This calculation suggests that the low triggering efficiency of the smaller granules is due to the inability of these granules to traverse the steep edge pressure gradient region and reach the top of the pedestal prior to full ablation« less
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