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Title: Tracking Internal Temperature and Structural Dynamics during Nail Penetration of Lithium-Ion Cells

Abstract

Mechanical abuse of lithium-ion batteries is widely used during testing to induce thermal runaway, characterize associated risks, and expose cell and module vulnerabilities. But, the repeatability of puncture or 'nail penetration' tests is a key issue as there is often a high degree of variability in the resulting thermal runaway process. Here, the failure mechanisms of 18650 cells punctured at different locations and orientations are characterized with respect to their internal structural degradation, and both their internal and surface temperature, all of which are monitored in real time. The initiation and propagation of thermal runaway is visualized via high-speed synchrotron X-ray radiography at 2000 frames per second, and the surface and internal temperatures are recorded via infrared imaging and a thermocouple embedded in the tip of the penetrating nail, respectively. The influence of the nail, as well as how and where it penetrates the cell, on the initiation and propagation of thermal runaway is described and the suitability of this test method for representing in-field failures is discussed.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [2];  [2]
  1. Univ. College London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center
  2. Univ. College London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering
  3. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRP), Grenoble (France)
  4. National Physical Lab., Middlesex (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
British Research Council, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC); Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)
OSTI Identifier:
1412833
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5400-68877
Journal ID: ISSN 0013-4651; TRN: US1800370
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of the Electrochemical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 164; Journal Issue: 13; Journal ID: ISSN 0013-4651
Publisher:
The Electrochemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; lithium ion batteries; nail penetration; x-ray imaging

Citation Formats

Finegan, Donal P., Tjaden, Bernhard, M. M. Heenan, Thomas, Jervis, Rhodri, Michiel, Marco Di, Rack, Alexander, Hinds, Gareth, Brett, Dan J. L., and Shearing, Paul R. Tracking Internal Temperature and Structural Dynamics during Nail Penetration of Lithium-Ion Cells. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1149/2.1501713jes.
Finegan, Donal P., Tjaden, Bernhard, M. M. Heenan, Thomas, Jervis, Rhodri, Michiel, Marco Di, Rack, Alexander, Hinds, Gareth, Brett, Dan J. L., & Shearing, Paul R. Tracking Internal Temperature and Structural Dynamics during Nail Penetration of Lithium-Ion Cells. United States. doi:10.1149/2.1501713jes.
Finegan, Donal P., Tjaden, Bernhard, M. M. Heenan, Thomas, Jervis, Rhodri, Michiel, Marco Di, Rack, Alexander, Hinds, Gareth, Brett, Dan J. L., and Shearing, Paul R. Tue . "Tracking Internal Temperature and Structural Dynamics during Nail Penetration of Lithium-Ion Cells". United States. doi:10.1149/2.1501713jes. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1412833.
@article{osti_1412833,
title = {Tracking Internal Temperature and Structural Dynamics during Nail Penetration of Lithium-Ion Cells},
author = {Finegan, Donal P. and Tjaden, Bernhard and M. M. Heenan, Thomas and Jervis, Rhodri and Michiel, Marco Di and Rack, Alexander and Hinds, Gareth and Brett, Dan J. L. and Shearing, Paul R.},
abstractNote = {Mechanical abuse of lithium-ion batteries is widely used during testing to induce thermal runaway, characterize associated risks, and expose cell and module vulnerabilities. But, the repeatability of puncture or 'nail penetration' tests is a key issue as there is often a high degree of variability in the resulting thermal runaway process. Here, the failure mechanisms of 18650 cells punctured at different locations and orientations are characterized with respect to their internal structural degradation, and both their internal and surface temperature, all of which are monitored in real time. The initiation and propagation of thermal runaway is visualized via high-speed synchrotron X-ray radiography at 2000 frames per second, and the surface and internal temperatures are recorded via infrared imaging and a thermocouple embedded in the tip of the penetrating nail, respectively. The influence of the nail, as well as how and where it penetrates the cell, on the initiation and propagation of thermal runaway is described and the suitability of this test method for representing in-field failures is discussed.},
doi = {10.1149/2.1501713jes},
journal = {Journal of the Electrochemical Society},
number = 13,
volume = 164,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Oct 31 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Tue Oct 31 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

Experimental triggers for internal short circuits in lithium-ion cells
journal, August 2011

  • Orendorff, Christopher J.; Roth, E. Peter; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan
  • Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 196, Issue 15, p. 6554-6558
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.03.035

Internal short circuit in Li-ion cells
journal, June 2009


Analysis of internal short-circuit in a lithium ion cell
journal, October 2009

  • Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Ramadass, Premanand; Zhang, John (Zhengming)
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  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2009.05.002