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Title: Surrogate measurement of chlorine concentration on steel surfaces by alkali element detection via laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1412557
Grant/Contract Number:
NE0008266
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Spectrochimica Acta. Part B, Atomic Spectroscopy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 130; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-12-09 01:49:55; Journal ID: ISSN 0584-8547
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Xiao, X., Le Berre, S., Hartig, K. C., Motta, A. T., and Jovanovic, I.. Surrogate measurement of chlorine concentration on steel surfaces by alkali element detection via laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. United Kingdom: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.sab.2017.02.011.
Xiao, X., Le Berre, S., Hartig, K. C., Motta, A. T., & Jovanovic, I.. Surrogate measurement of chlorine concentration on steel surfaces by alkali element detection via laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. United Kingdom. doi:10.1016/j.sab.2017.02.011.
Xiao, X., Le Berre, S., Hartig, K. C., Motta, A. T., and Jovanovic, I.. Sat . "Surrogate measurement of chlorine concentration on steel surfaces by alkali element detection via laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy". United Kingdom. doi:10.1016/j.sab.2017.02.011.
@article{osti_1412557,
title = {Surrogate measurement of chlorine concentration on steel surfaces by alkali element detection via laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy},
author = {Xiao, X. and Le Berre, S. and Hartig, K. C. and Motta, A. T. and Jovanovic, I.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.sab.2017.02.011},
journal = {Spectrochimica Acta. Part B, Atomic Spectroscopy},
number = C,
volume = 130,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {Sat Apr 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Sat Apr 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.sab.2017.02.011

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

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  • The chlorine concentration in concrete samples was measured by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). One or two pulsed second harmonic Nd:YAG lasers ({lambda}=532 nm) were used for the generation of laser-induced breakdown, and an intensified CCD camera, spectrometer, and optical bundle fiber were used for spectral measurement. To maximize the spectral intensity of the chlorine fluorescence line at a wavelength of 837.59 nm, the time delay between laser irradiation and spectral measurement, the time delay between the two laser pulses in double-pulse measurement, and the gate width of the spectral measurement were optimized. The linear relationship between the spectral intensity ofmore » the chlorine fluorescence line and the chlorine concentration was verified for pressed samples with chlorine concentrations from 0.18 to 5.4 kg/m{sup 3}. The signal-to-noise ratio was higher than 2 for the sample with a chlorine concentration of 0.18 kg/m{sup 3} (0.008 wt. %). Thus, a chlorine concentration of 0.6 kg/m{sup 3}, at which the reinforcing bars in concrete structures start to corrode, can be detected. These results show that LIBS is effective for the quantitative measurement of chlorine concentration in concrete with high sensitivity.« less
  • Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used in the evaluation of aerosol concentration in the exhaust of an oxygen/natural-gas glass furnace. Experiments showed that for a delay time of 10 {micro}s and a gate width of 50 {micro}s, the presence of CO{sub 2} and changes in gas temperature affect the intensity of both continuum emission and the Na D lines. The intensity increased for the neutral Ca and Mg lines in the presence of 21% CO{sub 2} when compared to 100% N{sub 2}, whereas the intensity of the Mg and Ca ionic lines decreased. An increase in temperature from 300 tomore » 730 K produced an increase in both continuum emission and Na signal. These laboratory measurements were consistent with measurements in the glass furnace exhaust. Time-resolved analysis of the spark radiation suggested that differences in continuum radiation resulting from changes in bath composition are only apparent at long delay times. The changes in the intensity of ionic and neutral lines in the presence of CO{sub 2} are believed to result from higher free electron number density caused by lower ionization energies of species formed during the spark decay process in the presence of CO{sub 2}. For the high Na concentration observed in the glass furnace exhaust, self-absorption of the spark radiation occurred. Power law regression was used to fit laboratory Na LIBS calibration data for sodium loadings, gas temperatures, and a CO{sub 2} content representative of the furnace exhaust. Improvement of the LIBS measurement in this environment may be possible by evaluation of Na lines with weaker emission and through the use of shorter gate delay times.« less
  • Monitoring of light-element concentration in steel is very important for quality assurance in the steel industry. In this work, detection in open air of trace phosphorus (P) in steel using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) combined with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) has been investigated. An optical parametric oscillator wavelength-tunable laser was used to resonantly excite the P atoms within plasma plumes generated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. A set of steel samples with P concentrations from 3.9 to 720 parts in 10{sup 6}(ppm) were analyzed using LIBS-LIF at wavelengths of 253.40 and 253.56 nm for resonant excitation of P atoms and fluorescencemore » lines at wavelengths of 213.55 and 213.62 nm. The calibration curves were measured to determine the limit of detection for P in steel, which is estimated to be around 0.7 ppm. The results demonstrate the potential of LIBS-LIF to meet the requirements for on-line analyses in open air in the steel industry.« less
  • We report application of a near-real-time method to determine layer thickness on electroplated coin blanks. The method was developed on a simple laser-induced-breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) arrangement by monitoring relative emission-line intensities from key probe elements via successive laser ablation shots. This is a unique LIBS application where no other current spectroscopic method (inductively coupled plasma or x-ray fluorescence) can be applied effectively. Method development is discussed, and results with precalibrated coins are presented.
  • The use of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) to spectrometrically detect chlorine and fluorine if air directly is investigated. A laser-generated spark is used to atomize chlorine- and fluorine-bearing molecules. The atoms are then electronically excited by the high temperatures of the spark. Emission from the neutral atoms is spectrally and temporally resolved to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. Optimization of the time window and laser power for minimum detection limits is discussed. The use of LIBS to determine the ratios of the numbers of different types of atoms on a molecule is considered. Minimum detectable concentrations of chlorine and fluorine inmore » air are 8 and 38 ppm (w/w), respectively. Minimum detectable masses of chlorine and fluorine are, respectively, 80 ng and 2000 ng in air and 3 ng for both atoms in He. The precision for replicate sample analysis is 8% RSD. 3 figures, 4 tables.« less