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Title: Autonomous sweat extraction and analysis applied to cystic fibrosis and glucose monitoring using a fully integrated wearable platform

Abstract

Perspiration-based wearable biosensors facilitate continuous monitoring of individuals' health states with real-time and molecular-level insight. The inherent inaccessibility of sweat in sedentary individuals in large volume (≥10 μL) for on-demand and in situ analysis has limited our ability to capitalize on this noninvasive and rich source of information. A wearable and miniaturized iontophoresis interface is an excellent solution to overcome this barrier. The iontophoresis process involves delivery of stimulating agonists to the sweat glands with the aid of an electrical current. The challenge remains in devising an iontophoresis interface that can extract sufficient amount of sweat for robust sensing, without electrode corrosion and burning/causing discomfort in subjects. Here, we overcame this challenge through realizing an electrochemically enhanced iontophoresis interface, integrated in a wearable sweat analysis platform. This interface can be programmed to induce sweat with various secretion profiles for real-time analysis, a capability which can be exploited to advance our knowledge of the sweat gland physiology and the secretion process. To demonstrate the clinical value of our platform, human subject studies were performed in the context of the cystic fibrosis diagnosis and preliminary investigation of the blood/sweat glucose correlation. With our platform, we detected the elevated sweat electrolyte content ofmore » cystic fibrosis patients compared with that of healthy control subjects. Furthermore, our results indicate that oral glucose consumption in the fasting state is followed by increased glucose levels in both sweat and blood. In conclusion, our solution opens the possibility for a broad range of noninvasive diagnostic and general population health monitoring applications.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [2];  [5];  [4];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [5];  [6];  [2];  [7]
  1. Stanford School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA (United States). Stanford Genome Technology Center; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division
  2. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division
  3. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences
  4. Stanford School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA (United States). Stanford Cystic Fibrosis Center, Center for Excellence in Pulmonary Biology
  5. Stanford School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA (United States). Stanford Genome Technology Center; Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering
  6. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering
  7. Stanford School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA (United States). Stanford Genome Technology Center
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1411578
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; P01HG000205
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 114; Journal Issue: 18; Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424
Publisher:
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; wearable; biosensors; noninvasive; iontophoresis; personalized medicine

Citation Formats

Emaminejad, Sam, Gao, Wei, Wu, Eric, Davies, Zoe A., Yin Yin Nyein, Hnin, Challa, Samyuktha, Ryan, Sean P., Fahad, Hossain M., Chen, Kevin, Shahpar, Ziba, Talebi, Salmonn, Milla, Carlos, Javey, Ali, and Davis, Ronald W. Autonomous sweat extraction and analysis applied to cystic fibrosis and glucose monitoring using a fully integrated wearable platform. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1073/pnas.1701740114.
Emaminejad, Sam, Gao, Wei, Wu, Eric, Davies, Zoe A., Yin Yin Nyein, Hnin, Challa, Samyuktha, Ryan, Sean P., Fahad, Hossain M., Chen, Kevin, Shahpar, Ziba, Talebi, Salmonn, Milla, Carlos, Javey, Ali, & Davis, Ronald W. Autonomous sweat extraction and analysis applied to cystic fibrosis and glucose monitoring using a fully integrated wearable platform. United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1701740114.
Emaminejad, Sam, Gao, Wei, Wu, Eric, Davies, Zoe A., Yin Yin Nyein, Hnin, Challa, Samyuktha, Ryan, Sean P., Fahad, Hossain M., Chen, Kevin, Shahpar, Ziba, Talebi, Salmonn, Milla, Carlos, Javey, Ali, and Davis, Ronald W. Mon . "Autonomous sweat extraction and analysis applied to cystic fibrosis and glucose monitoring using a fully integrated wearable platform". United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1701740114. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1411578.
@article{osti_1411578,
title = {Autonomous sweat extraction and analysis applied to cystic fibrosis and glucose monitoring using a fully integrated wearable platform},
author = {Emaminejad, Sam and Gao, Wei and Wu, Eric and Davies, Zoe A. and Yin Yin Nyein, Hnin and Challa, Samyuktha and Ryan, Sean P. and Fahad, Hossain M. and Chen, Kevin and Shahpar, Ziba and Talebi, Salmonn and Milla, Carlos and Javey, Ali and Davis, Ronald W.},
abstractNote = {Perspiration-based wearable biosensors facilitate continuous monitoring of individuals' health states with real-time and molecular-level insight. The inherent inaccessibility of sweat in sedentary individuals in large volume (≥10 μL) for on-demand and in situ analysis has limited our ability to capitalize on this noninvasive and rich source of information. A wearable and miniaturized iontophoresis interface is an excellent solution to overcome this barrier. The iontophoresis process involves delivery of stimulating agonists to the sweat glands with the aid of an electrical current. The challenge remains in devising an iontophoresis interface that can extract sufficient amount of sweat for robust sensing, without electrode corrosion and burning/causing discomfort in subjects. Here, we overcame this challenge through realizing an electrochemically enhanced iontophoresis interface, integrated in a wearable sweat analysis platform. This interface can be programmed to induce sweat with various secretion profiles for real-time analysis, a capability which can be exploited to advance our knowledge of the sweat gland physiology and the secretion process. To demonstrate the clinical value of our platform, human subject studies were performed in the context of the cystic fibrosis diagnosis and preliminary investigation of the blood/sweat glucose correlation. With our platform, we detected the elevated sweat electrolyte content of cystic fibrosis patients compared with that of healthy control subjects. Furthermore, our results indicate that oral glucose consumption in the fasting state is followed by increased glucose levels in both sweat and blood. In conclusion, our solution opens the possibility for a broad range of noninvasive diagnostic and general population health monitoring applications.},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.1701740114},
journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
issn = {0027-8424},
number = 18,
volume = 114,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {4}
}

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