skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Photocathode

Abstract

A photocathode designs that leverage the grazing incidence geometry yield improvements through the introduction of recessed structures, such as cones, pyramids, pillars or cavities to the photocathode substrate surface. Improvements in yield of up to 20 times have been shown to occur in grazing incidence geometry disclosed herein due to a larger path length of the X-ray photons which better matches the secondary electron escape depth within the photocathode material. A photocathode includes a substrate having a first side and a second side, the first side configured to receive x-ray energy and the second side opposing the first side. A structured surface is associated with the second side of the substrate such that the structured surface includes a plurality of recesses from the second side of the substrate into the substrate.

Inventors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Nevada Test Site (NTS), Mercury, NV (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1411395
Patent Number(s):
9,837,238
Application Number:
15/249,197
Assignee:
National Security Technologies, LLC (North Las Vegas, NV) NSTEC
DOE Contract Number:
AC52-06NA25946
Resource Type:
Patent
Resource Relation:
Patent File Date: 2016 Aug 26
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION

Citation Formats

Opachich, Yekaterina, and MacPhee, Andrew. Photocathode. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Opachich, Yekaterina, & MacPhee, Andrew. Photocathode. United States.
Opachich, Yekaterina, and MacPhee, Andrew. 2017. "Photocathode". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1411395.
@article{osti_1411395,
title = {Photocathode},
author = {Opachich, Yekaterina and MacPhee, Andrew},
abstractNote = {A photocathode designs that leverage the grazing incidence geometry yield improvements through the introduction of recessed structures, such as cones, pyramids, pillars or cavities to the photocathode substrate surface. Improvements in yield of up to 20 times have been shown to occur in grazing incidence geometry disclosed herein due to a larger path length of the X-ray photons which better matches the secondary electron escape depth within the photocathode material. A photocathode includes a substrate having a first side and a second side, the first side configured to receive x-ray energy and the second side opposing the first side. A structured surface is associated with the second side of the substrate such that the structured surface includes a plurality of recesses from the second side of the substrate into the substrate.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month =
}

Patent:

Save / Share:
  • A single-crystal, multi-layer device is described incorporating an IR absorbing layer that is compositionally different from the Ga{sub x}Al{sub 1{minus}x}Sb layer which acts as the electron emitter. Many different IR absorbing layers can be envisioned for use in this embodiment, limited only by the ability to grow quality material on a chosen substrate. A non-exclusive list of possible IR absorbing layers would include GaSb, InAs and InAs/Ga{sub w}In{sub y}Al{sub 1{minus}y{minus}w}Sb superlattices. The absorption of the IR photon excites an electron into the conduction band of the IR absorber. An externally applied electric field then transports electrons from the conduction bandmore » of the absorber into the conduction band of the Ga{sub x}Al{sub 1{minus}x}Sb, from which they are ejected into vacuum. Because the band alignments of Ga{sub x}Al{sub 1{minus}x}Sb can be made the same as that of GaAs, emitting efficiencies comparable to GaAs photocathodes are obtainable. The present invention provides a photocathode that is responsive to wavelengths within the range of 0.9 {mu}m to at least 10 {mu}m. 9 figures.« less
  • A single-crystal, multi-layer device incorporating an IR absorbing layer that is compositionally different from the Ga.sub.x Al.sub.1-x Sb layer which acts as the electron emitter. Many different IR absorbing layers can be envisioned for use in this embodiment, limited only by the ability to grow quality material on a chosen substrate. A non-exclusive list of possible IR absorbing layers would include GaSb, InAs and InAs/Ga.sub.w In.sub.y Al.sub.1-y-w Sb superlattices. The absorption of the IR photon excites an electron into the conduction band of the IR absorber. An externally applied electric field then transports electrons from the conduction band of themore » absorber into the conduction band of the Ga.sub.x Al.sub.1-x Sb, from which they are ejected into vacuum. Because the band alignments of Ga.sub.x Al.sub.1-x Sb can be made the same as that of GaAs, emitting efficiencies comparable to GaAs photocathodes are obtainable. The present invention provides a photocathode that is responsive to wavelengths within the range of 0.9 .mu.m to at least 10 .mu.m.« less
  • A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between themore » wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.« less
  • A method and apparatus for increasing the quantum efficiency of a photomultiplier tube by providing a photocathode with an increased surface-to-volume ratio. The photocathode includes a transparent substrate, upon one major side of which is formed one or more large aspect-ratio structures, such as needles, cones, fibers, prisms, or pyramids. The large aspect-ratio structures are at least partially composed of a photoelectron emitting material, i.e., a material that emits a photoelectron upon absorption of an optical photon. The large aspect-ratio structures may be substantially composed of the photoelectron emitting material (i.e., formed as such upon the surface of a relativelymore » flat substrate) or be only partially composed of a photoelectron emitting material (i.e., the photoelectron emitting material is coated over large aspect-ratio structures formed from the substrate material itself.) The large aspect-ratio nature of the photocathode surface allows for an effective increase in the thickness of the photocathode relative the absorption of optical photons, thereby increasing the absorption rate of incident photons, without substantially increasing the effective thickness of the photocathode relative the escape incidence of the photoelectrons.« less