skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Evaluation of different inertial control methods for variable-speed wind turbines simulated by fatigue, aerodynamic, structures and turbulence (FAST)

Abstract

To mitigate the degraded power system inertia and undesirable primary frequency response caused by large-scale wind power integration, the frequency support capabilities of variable-speed wind turbines is studied in this work. This is made possible by controlled inertial response, which is demonstrated on a research turbine - controls advanced research turbine, 3-bladed (CART3). Two distinct inertial control (IC) methods are analysed in terms of their impacts on the grids and the response of the turbine itself. The released kinetic energy in the IC methods are determined by the frequency measurement or shaped active power reference in the turbine speed-power plane. The wind turbine model is based on the high-fidelity turbine simulator fatigue, aerodynamic, structures and turbulence, which constitutes the aggregated wind power plant model with the simplified power converter model. The IC methods are implemented over the baseline CART3 controller, evaluated in the modified 9-bus and 14-bus testing power grids considering different wind speeds and different wind power penetration levels. The simulation results provide various insights on designing such kinds of ICs. The authors calculate the short-term dynamic equivalent loads and give a discussion about the turbine structural loadings related to the inertial response.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1411325
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5000-70588
Journal ID: ISSN 1752-1416
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: IET Renewable Power Generation; Journal Volume: 11; Journal Issue: 12
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
17 WIND ENERGY; 24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; angular velocity control; power convertors; power generation control; wind turbines

Citation Formats

Wang, Xiao, Gao, Wenzhong, Scholbrock, Andrew, Muljadi, Eduard, Gevorgian, Vahan, Wang, Jianhui, Yan, Weihang, and Zhang, Huaguang. Evaluation of different inertial control methods for variable-speed wind turbines simulated by fatigue, aerodynamic, structures and turbulence (FAST). United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1049/iet-rpg.2017.0123.
Wang, Xiao, Gao, Wenzhong, Scholbrock, Andrew, Muljadi, Eduard, Gevorgian, Vahan, Wang, Jianhui, Yan, Weihang, & Zhang, Huaguang. Evaluation of different inertial control methods for variable-speed wind turbines simulated by fatigue, aerodynamic, structures and turbulence (FAST). United States. doi:10.1049/iet-rpg.2017.0123.
Wang, Xiao, Gao, Wenzhong, Scholbrock, Andrew, Muljadi, Eduard, Gevorgian, Vahan, Wang, Jianhui, Yan, Weihang, and Zhang, Huaguang. 2017. "Evaluation of different inertial control methods for variable-speed wind turbines simulated by fatigue, aerodynamic, structures and turbulence (FAST)". United States. doi:10.1049/iet-rpg.2017.0123.
@article{osti_1411325,
title = {Evaluation of different inertial control methods for variable-speed wind turbines simulated by fatigue, aerodynamic, structures and turbulence (FAST)},
author = {Wang, Xiao and Gao, Wenzhong and Scholbrock, Andrew and Muljadi, Eduard and Gevorgian, Vahan and Wang, Jianhui and Yan, Weihang and Zhang, Huaguang},
abstractNote = {To mitigate the degraded power system inertia and undesirable primary frequency response caused by large-scale wind power integration, the frequency support capabilities of variable-speed wind turbines is studied in this work. This is made possible by controlled inertial response, which is demonstrated on a research turbine - controls advanced research turbine, 3-bladed (CART3). Two distinct inertial control (IC) methods are analysed in terms of their impacts on the grids and the response of the turbine itself. The released kinetic energy in the IC methods are determined by the frequency measurement or shaped active power reference in the turbine speed-power plane. The wind turbine model is based on the high-fidelity turbine simulator fatigue, aerodynamic, structures and turbulence, which constitutes the aggregated wind power plant model with the simplified power converter model. The IC methods are implemented over the baseline CART3 controller, evaluated in the modified 9-bus and 14-bus testing power grids considering different wind speeds and different wind power penetration levels. The simulation results provide various insights on designing such kinds of ICs. The authors calculate the short-term dynamic equivalent loads and give a discussion about the turbine structural loadings related to the inertial response.},
doi = {10.1049/iet-rpg.2017.0123},
journal = {IET Renewable Power Generation},
number = 12,
volume = 11,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month =
}
  • In this paper, we focus on the temporary frequency support effect provided by wind turbine generators (WTGs) through the inertial response. With the implemented inertial control methods, the WTG is capable of increasing its active power output by releasing parts of the stored kinetic energy when the frequency excursion occurs. The active power can be boosted temporarily above the maximum power points, but the rotor speed deceleration follows and an active power output deficiency occurs during the restoration of rotor kinetic energy. In this paper, we evaluate and compare the inertial response induced by two distinct inertial control methods usingmore » advanced simulation. In the first stage, the proposed inertial control methods are analyzed in offline simulation. Using an advanced wind turbine simulation program, FAST with TurbSim, the response of the researched wind turbine is comprehensively evaluated under turbulent wind conditions, and the impact on the turbine mechanical components are assessed. In the second stage, the inertial control is deployed on a real 600-kW wind turbine, the three-bladed Controls Advanced Research Turbine, which further verifies the inertial control through a hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Various inertial control methods can be effectively evaluated based on the proposed two-stage simulation platform, which combines the offline simulation and real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The simulation results also provide insights in designing inertial control for WTGs.« less
  • It is recognized that the most important advantage of the variable speed wind turbines (VS WTs) over the conventional constant speed (CS) machines are the improved dynamic characteristics, resulting in the reduction of the drive train mechanical stresses and output power fluctuations. In this paper alternative configurations of the electrical part of a VS WT are considered, using a squirrel cage induction generator and voltage or current source converters, as well as a double output induction generator with a rotor converter cascade. The WT operation is simulated for typical wind speed time series and the examined schemes are comparatively assessed.more » It is shown that, using suitable converters and controls, a great reduction of the mechanical stresses and output power fluctuations can be achieved, compared to the CS mode of operation of the WT.« less