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Title: Auger Electrons as Probes for Composite Micro- and Nano- structured Materials: Application to Solid Electrolyte Interphases in Graphite and Silicon-Graphite Electrodes

Abstract

In this study, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) combined with ion sputtering profilometry, Xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used in a complementary fashion to examine chemical and microstructural changes in graphite (Gr) and silicon/graphite (Si/Gr) blends contained in the negative electrodes of lithium-ion cells. We demonstrate how AES can be used to characterize morphology of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) deposits in such heterogeneous media, complementing well-established methods, such as XPS and SEM. In this way we demonstrate that the SEI does not consist of uniformly thick layers on the graphite and silicon; the thickness of the SEI layers in cycle-life aged electrodes follows an exponential distribution with a mean of ca. 13 nm for the graphite and ca. 20-25 nm for the silicon nanoparticles (with a crystalline core of 50-70 nm in diameter). Furthermore, a “sticky-sphere” model, in which Si nanoparticles are covered with a layer of polymer binder (that is replaced by the SEI during cycling) of variable thickness is introduced to account for the features observed.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  2. Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1411171
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Physical Chemistry. C
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 121; Journal ID: ISSN 1932-7447
Publisher:
American Chemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; Auger electron spectroscopy; photoelectron spectroscopy; lithium ion battery; silicon anode; solid electrolyte interphase

Citation Formats

Kalaga, Kaushik, Shkrob, Ilya A., Haasch, Richard T., Peebles, Cameron, Bareno, Javier, and Abraham, Daniel P. Auger Electrons as Probes for Composite Micro- and Nano- structured Materials: Application to Solid Electrolyte Interphases in Graphite and Silicon-Graphite Electrodes. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b08279.
Kalaga, Kaushik, Shkrob, Ilya A., Haasch, Richard T., Peebles, Cameron, Bareno, Javier, & Abraham, Daniel P. Auger Electrons as Probes for Composite Micro- and Nano- structured Materials: Application to Solid Electrolyte Interphases in Graphite and Silicon-Graphite Electrodes. United States. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b08279.
Kalaga, Kaushik, Shkrob, Ilya A., Haasch, Richard T., Peebles, Cameron, Bareno, Javier, and Abraham, Daniel P. Thu . "Auger Electrons as Probes for Composite Micro- and Nano- structured Materials: Application to Solid Electrolyte Interphases in Graphite and Silicon-Graphite Electrodes". United States. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b08279. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1411171.
@article{osti_1411171,
title = {Auger Electrons as Probes for Composite Micro- and Nano- structured Materials: Application to Solid Electrolyte Interphases in Graphite and Silicon-Graphite Electrodes},
author = {Kalaga, Kaushik and Shkrob, Ilya A. and Haasch, Richard T. and Peebles, Cameron and Bareno, Javier and Abraham, Daniel P},
abstractNote = {In this study, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) combined with ion sputtering profilometry, Xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used in a complementary fashion to examine chemical and microstructural changes in graphite (Gr) and silicon/graphite (Si/Gr) blends contained in the negative electrodes of lithium-ion cells. We demonstrate how AES can be used to characterize morphology of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) deposits in such heterogeneous media, complementing well-established methods, such as XPS and SEM. In this way we demonstrate that the SEI does not consist of uniformly thick layers on the graphite and silicon; the thickness of the SEI layers in cycle-life aged electrodes follows an exponential distribution with a mean of ca. 13 nm for the graphite and ca. 20-25 nm for the silicon nanoparticles (with a crystalline core of 50-70 nm in diameter). Furthermore, a “sticky-sphere” model, in which Si nanoparticles are covered with a layer of polymer binder (that is replaced by the SEI during cycling) of variable thickness is introduced to account for the features observed.},
doi = {10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b08279},
journal = {Journal of Physical Chemistry. C},
number = ,
volume = 121,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Oct 05 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Thu Oct 05 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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