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Title: On Leakage Current Measured at High Cell Voltages in Lithium-Ion Batteries

Abstract

In this study, parasitic side reactions in lithium-ion batteries were examined experimentally using a potentiostatic hold at high cell voltage. The experimental leakage current measured during the potentiostatic hold was compared to the Tafel expression and showed poor agreement with the expected transfer coefficient values, indicating that a more complicated expression could be needed to accurately capture the physics of this side reaction. Here we show that cross-talk between the electrodes is the primary contribution to the observed leakage current after the relaxation of concentration gradients has ceased. This cross-talk was confirmed with experiments using a lithium-ion conducting glass ceramic (LICGC) separator, which has high conductance only for lithium cations. The cells with LICGC separators showed significantly less leakage current during the potentiostatic hold test compared to cells with standard microporous separators where cross-talk is present. In addition, direct-current pulse power tests show an impedance rise for cells held at high potentials and for cells held at high temperatures, which could be attributed to film formation from the parasitic side reaction. Based on the experimental findings, a phenomenological mechanism is proposed for the parasitic side reaction which accounts for cross-talk and mass transport of the decomposition products across the separator.

Authors:
ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) - Office of Vehicle Technology
OSTI Identifier:
1411160
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of the Electrochemical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 164; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0013-4651
Publisher:
The Electrochemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; Battery; Degradation; lithium ion

Citation Formats

Vadivel, Nicole R., Ha, Seungbum, He, Meinan, Dees, Dennis, Trask, Steve, Polzin, Bryant, and Gallagher, Kevin G. On Leakage Current Measured at High Cell Voltages in Lithium-Ion Batteries. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1149/2.1341702jes.
Vadivel, Nicole R., Ha, Seungbum, He, Meinan, Dees, Dennis, Trask, Steve, Polzin, Bryant, & Gallagher, Kevin G. On Leakage Current Measured at High Cell Voltages in Lithium-Ion Batteries. United States. doi:10.1149/2.1341702jes.
Vadivel, Nicole R., Ha, Seungbum, He, Meinan, Dees, Dennis, Trask, Steve, Polzin, Bryant, and Gallagher, Kevin G. Sun . "On Leakage Current Measured at High Cell Voltages in Lithium-Ion Batteries". United States. doi:10.1149/2.1341702jes.
@article{osti_1411160,
title = {On Leakage Current Measured at High Cell Voltages in Lithium-Ion Batteries},
author = {Vadivel, Nicole R. and Ha, Seungbum and He, Meinan and Dees, Dennis and Trask, Steve and Polzin, Bryant and Gallagher, Kevin G.},
abstractNote = {In this study, parasitic side reactions in lithium-ion batteries were examined experimentally using a potentiostatic hold at high cell voltage. The experimental leakage current measured during the potentiostatic hold was compared to the Tafel expression and showed poor agreement with the expected transfer coefficient values, indicating that a more complicated expression could be needed to accurately capture the physics of this side reaction. Here we show that cross-talk between the electrodes is the primary contribution to the observed leakage current after the relaxation of concentration gradients has ceased. This cross-talk was confirmed with experiments using a lithium-ion conducting glass ceramic (LICGC) separator, which has high conductance only for lithium cations. The cells with LICGC separators showed significantly less leakage current during the potentiostatic hold test compared to cells with standard microporous separators where cross-talk is present. In addition, direct-current pulse power tests show an impedance rise for cells held at high potentials and for cells held at high temperatures, which could be attributed to film formation from the parasitic side reaction. Based on the experimental findings, a phenomenological mechanism is proposed for the parasitic side reaction which accounts for cross-talk and mass transport of the decomposition products across the separator.},
doi = {10.1149/2.1341702jes},
journal = {Journal of the Electrochemical Society},
issn = {0013-4651},
number = 2,
volume = 164,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {1}
}

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