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Title: Adaptive Gain-based Stable Power Smoothing of a DFIG

Abstract

In a power system that has a high wind penetration, the output power fluctuation of a large-scale wind turbine generator (WTG) caused by the varying wind speed increases the maximum frequency deviation, which is an important metric to assess the quality of electricity, because of the reduced system inertia. This paper proposes a stable power-smoothing scheme of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) that can suppress the maximum frequency deviation, particularly for a power system with a high wind penetration. To do this, the proposed scheme employs an additional control loop relying on the system frequency deviation that operates in combination with the maximum power point tracking control loop. To improve the power-smoothing capability while guaranteeing the stable operation of a DFIG, the gain of the additional loop is modified with the rotor speed and frequency deviation. The gain is set to be high if the rotor speed and/or frequency deviation is large. Here, the simulation results based on the IEEE 14-bus system demonstrate that the proposed scheme significantly lessens the output power fluctuation of a WTG under various scenarios by modifying the gain with the rotor speed and frequency deviation, and thereby it can regulate the frequency deviation within amore » narrow range.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [2]
  1. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  2. Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Republic of Korea)
  3. Korea Electric Association (KEA), Seoul (Korea)
  4. Hyosung Corp. (South Korea)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1411129
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5D00-70569
Journal ID: ISSN 1975-0102
Grant/Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 12; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 1975-0102
Publisher:
Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; frequency deviation; kinetic energy; power fluctuation; power smoothing; rotor speed; and stable operation

Citation Formats

Muljadi, Eduard, Lee, Hyewon, Hwang, Min, Lee, Jinsik, Jung, Hong -Ju, and Kang, Yong Cheol. Adaptive Gain-based Stable Power Smoothing of a DFIG. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.5370/JEET.2017.12.6.2099.
Muljadi, Eduard, Lee, Hyewon, Hwang, Min, Lee, Jinsik, Jung, Hong -Ju, & Kang, Yong Cheol. Adaptive Gain-based Stable Power Smoothing of a DFIG. United States. doi:10.5370/JEET.2017.12.6.2099.
Muljadi, Eduard, Lee, Hyewon, Hwang, Min, Lee, Jinsik, Jung, Hong -Ju, and Kang, Yong Cheol. Wed . "Adaptive Gain-based Stable Power Smoothing of a DFIG". United States. doi:10.5370/JEET.2017.12.6.2099. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1411129.
@article{osti_1411129,
title = {Adaptive Gain-based Stable Power Smoothing of a DFIG},
author = {Muljadi, Eduard and Lee, Hyewon and Hwang, Min and Lee, Jinsik and Jung, Hong -Ju and Kang, Yong Cheol},
abstractNote = {In a power system that has a high wind penetration, the output power fluctuation of a large-scale wind turbine generator (WTG) caused by the varying wind speed increases the maximum frequency deviation, which is an important metric to assess the quality of electricity, because of the reduced system inertia. This paper proposes a stable power-smoothing scheme of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) that can suppress the maximum frequency deviation, particularly for a power system with a high wind penetration. To do this, the proposed scheme employs an additional control loop relying on the system frequency deviation that operates in combination with the maximum power point tracking control loop. To improve the power-smoothing capability while guaranteeing the stable operation of a DFIG, the gain of the additional loop is modified with the rotor speed and frequency deviation. The gain is set to be high if the rotor speed and/or frequency deviation is large. Here, the simulation results based on the IEEE 14-bus system demonstrate that the proposed scheme significantly lessens the output power fluctuation of a WTG under various scenarios by modifying the gain with the rotor speed and frequency deviation, and thereby it can regulate the frequency deviation within a narrow range.},
doi = {10.5370/JEET.2017.12.6.2099},
journal = {Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology},
number = 6,
volume = 12,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Nov 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Wed Nov 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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  • In an electric power grid that has a high penetration level of wind, the power fluctuation of a large-scale wind power plant (WPP) caused by varying wind speeds deteriorates the system frequency regulation. This paper proposes a power-smoothing scheme of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) that significantly mitigates the system frequency fluctuation while preventing over-deceleration of the rotor speed. The proposed scheme employs an additional control loop relying on the system frequency deviation that operates in combination with the maximum power point tracking control loop. To improve the power-smoothing capability while preventing over-deceleration of the rotor speed, the gain ofmore » the additional loop is modified with the rotor speed and frequency deviation. The gain is set to be high if the rotor speed and/or frequency deviation is large. In conclusion, the simulation results based on the IEEE 14-bus system clearly demonstrate that the proposed scheme significantly lessens the output power fluctuation of a WPP under various scenarios by modifying the gain with the rotor speed and frequency deviation, and thereby it can regulate the frequency deviation within a narrow range.« less
  • For the fixed-gain inertial control of wind power plants (WPPs), a large gain setting provides a large contribution to supporting system frequency control, but it may cause over-deceleration for a wind turbine generator that has a small amount of kinetic energy (KE). Further, if the wind speed decreases during inertial control, even a small gain may cause over-deceleration. This paper proposes a stable inertial control scheme using adaptive gains for a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based WPP. The scheme aims to improve the frequency nadir (FN) while ensuring stable operation of all DFIGs, particularly when the wind speed decreases duringmore » inertial control. In this scheme, adaptive gains are set to be proportional to the KE stored in DFIGs, which is spatially and temporally dependent. To improve the FN, upon detecting an event, large gains are set to be proportional to the KE of DFIGs; to ensure stable operation, the gains decrease with the declining KE. The simulation results demonstrate that the scheme improves the FN while ensuring stable operation of all DFIGs in various wind and system conditions. Further, it prevents over-deceleration even when the wind speed decreases during inertial control.« less
  • This paper proposes a disturbance-adaptive short-term frequency support scheme of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) that can improve the frequency-supporting capability while ensuring stable operation. In the proposed scheme, the output of the additional control loop is determined as the product of the frequency deviation and adaptive gain, which is modified depending on the rate of change of frequency (ROCOF) and rotor speed. To achieve these objectives, the adaptive gain is set to be high during the early stage of a disturbance, when the ROCOF and rotor speed are high. Until the frequency nadir (FN), the gain decreases withmore » the ROCOF and rotor speed. After the FN, the gain decreases only with the rotor speed. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme improves the FN and maximum ROCOF while ensuring the stable operation of a DFIG under various wind conditions irrespective of the disturbance conditions by adaptively changing the control gain with the ROCOF and rotor speed, even if the wind speed decreases and a consecutive disturbance occurs.« less
  • Wind generators within a wind power plant (WPP) will produce different amounts of active power because of the wake effect, and therefore, they have different reactive power capabilities. This paper proposes an adaptive reactive power to the voltage (Q-V) scheme for the voltage control of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based WPP. In the proposed scheme, the WPP controller uses a voltage control mode and sends a voltage error signal to each DFIG. The DFIG controller also employs a voltage control mode utilizing the adaptive Q-V characteristics depending on the reactive power capability such that a DFIG with a largermore » reactive power capability will inject more reactive power to ensure fast voltage recovery. Test results indicate that the proposed scheme can recover the voltage within a short time, even for a grid fault with a small short-circuit ratio, by making use of the available reactive power of a WPP and differentiating the reactive power injection in proportion to the reactive power capability. This will, therefore, help to reduce the additional reactive power and ensure fast voltage recovery.« less
  • This paper proposes an adaptive hierarchical voltage control scheme of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind power plant (WPP) that can secure more reserve of reactive power (Q) in the WPP against a grid fault. To achieve this, each DFIG controller employs an adaptive reactive power to voltage (Q-V) characteristic. The proposed adaptive Q-V characteristic is temporally modified depending on the available Q capability of a DFIG; it is dependent on the distance from a DFIG to the point of common coupling (PCC). The proposed characteristic secures more Q reserve in the WPP than the fixed one. Furthermore, it allowsmore » DFIGs to promptly inject up to the Q limit, thereby improving the PCC voltage support. To avert an overvoltage after the fault clearance, washout filters are implemented in the WPP and DFIG controllers; they can prevent a surplus Q injection after the fault clearance by eliminating the accumulated values in the proportional-integral controllers of both controllers during the fault. Test results demonstrate that the scheme can improve the voltage support capability during the fault and suppress transient overvoltage after the fault clearance under scenarios of various system and fault conditions; therefore, it helps ensure grid resilience by supporting the voltage stability.« less