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Title: Real-time monitoring of crystal accumulation in the high-level waste glass melters using an electrical conductivity method

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1411096
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
International Journal of Applied Glass Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 1; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-12-03 12:25:28; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1286
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Edwards, Matthew, Matyáš, Josef, and Crum, Jarrod. Real-time monitoring of crystal accumulation in the high-level waste glass melters using an electrical conductivity method. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1111/ijag.12275.
Edwards, Matthew, Matyáš, Josef, & Crum, Jarrod. Real-time monitoring of crystal accumulation in the high-level waste glass melters using an electrical conductivity method. United States. doi:10.1111/ijag.12275.
Edwards, Matthew, Matyáš, Josef, and Crum, Jarrod. 2017. "Real-time monitoring of crystal accumulation in the high-level waste glass melters using an electrical conductivity method". United States. doi:10.1111/ijag.12275.
@article{osti_1411096,
title = {Real-time monitoring of crystal accumulation in the high-level waste glass melters using an electrical conductivity method},
author = {Edwards, Matthew and Matyáš, Josef and Crum, Jarrod},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1111/ijag.12275},
journal = {International Journal of Applied Glass Science},
number = 1,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 5
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on May 18, 2018
Publisher's Accepted Manuscript

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  • We present that the effectiveness of high-level waste vitrification at Hanford's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant may be limited by precipitation/accumulation of spinel crystals [(Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn)(Fe, Cr) 2O 4] in the glass discharge riser of Joule-heated ceramic melters during idling. These crystals do not affect glass durability; however, if accumulated in thick layers, they can clog the melter and prevent discharge of molten glass into canisters. To address this problem, an empirical model was developed that can predict thicknesses of accumulated layers as a function of glass composition. This model predicts well the accumulation of single crystals and/ormore » small-scale agglomerates, but excessive agglomeration observed in high-Ni-Fe glass resulted in an underprediction of accumulated layers, which gradually worsened over time as an increased number of agglomerates formed. In conclusion, the accumulation rate of ~53.8 ± 3.7 μm/h determined for this glass will result in a ~26 mm-thick layer after 20 days of melter idling.« less
  • The effectiveness of HLW vitrification is limited by precipitation/accumulation of spinel crystals [(Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn)(Fe, Cr)2O4] in the glass discharge riser of Joule-heated ceramic melters during idling. These crystals do not affect glass durability; however, if accumulated in thick layer, they can clog the melter and prevent discharge of molten glass into canisters. To address this problem, an empirical model was developed that can predict thicknesses of accumulated layers as a function of glass composition. This model predicts well the accumulation of single crystals and/or small-scale agglomerates, but, excessive agglomeration observed in high-Ni-Fe glass resulted in an under-prediction ofmore » accumulated layers, which gradually worsen over time as an increased number of agglomerates formed. Accumulation rate of ~53.8 ± 3.7 µm/h determined for this glass will result in ~26 mm thick layer in 20 days of melter idling.« less
  • High-level radioactive waste melters are projected to operate in an inefficient manner as they are subjected to artificial constraints, such as minimum liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) or maximum equilibrium fraction of crystallinity at a given temperature. These constraints substantially limit waste loading, but were imposed to prevent clogging of the melter with spinel crystals [(Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn)(Fe, Cr){sub 2}O{sub 4}]. In the melter, the glass discharge riser is the most likely location for crystal accumulation during idling because of low glass temperatures, stagnant melts, and small diameter. To address this problem, a series of lab-scale crucible tests were performedmore » with specially formulated glasses to simulate accumulation of spinel in the riser. Thicknesses of accumulated layers were incorporated into empirical model of spinel settling. In addition, T{sub L} of glasses was measured and impact of particle agglomeration on accumulation rate was evaluated. Empirical model predicted well the accumulation of single crystals and/or smallscale agglomerates, but, excessive agglomeration observed in high-Ni-Fe glass resulted in an under-prediction of accumulated layers, which gradually worsen over time as an increased number of agglomerates formed. Accumulation rate of ~14.9 +- 1 nm/s determined for this glass will result in ~26 mm thick layer in 20 days of melter idling.« less