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Title: Radiation Tolerance of Controlled Fusion Welds in High Temperature Oxidation Resistant FeCrAl Alloys

Abstract

High temperature oxidation resistant iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys are candidate alloys for nuclear applications due to their exceptional performance during off-normal conditions such as a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) compared to currently deployed zirconium-based claddings [1]. A series of studies have been completed to determine the weldability of the FeCrAl alloy class and investigate the weldment performance in the as-received (non-irradiated) state [2,3]. These initial studies have shown the general effects of composition and microstructure on the weldability of FeCrAl alloys. Given this, limited details on the radiation tolerance of FeCrAl alloys and their weldments exist. Here, the highest priority candidate FeCrAl alloys and their weldments have been investigated after irradiation to enable a better understanding of FeCrAl alloy weldment performance within a high-intensity neutron field. The alloys examined include C35M (Fe-13%Cr-5% Al) and variants with aluminum (+2%) or titanium carbide (+1%) additions. Two different sub-sized tensile geometries, SS-J type and SS-2E (or SS-mini), were neutron irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor to 1.8-1.9 displacements per atom (dpa) in the temperature range of 195°C to 559°C. Post irradiation examination of the candidate alloys was completed and included uniaxial tensile tests coupled with digital image correlation (DIC), scanning electron microscopy-electron back scatteredmore » diffraction analysis (SEM-EBSD), and SEM-based fractography. In addition to weldment testing, non-welded parent material was examined as a direct comparison between welded and non-welded specimen performance. Both welded and non-welded specimens showed a high degree of radiation-induced hardening near irradiation temperatures of 200°C, moderate radiation-induced hardening near temperatures of 360°C, and almost no radiation-induced hardening at elevated temperatures near 550°C. Additionally, low-temperature irradiations showed the non-welded specimens to exhibit strain-induced softening (decrease in the true stress level) with increasing plastic strain during tensile testing. Fracture for the weldments was found to occur exclusively within the fusion zone. The mechanical performance of the weldment was speculated to be directly linked to variances in the radiation-induced microstructure including the formation of dislocation loops and precipitation of the Cr-rich α' phase. The localized microstructural variation within the weldments, including grain size, was determined to play a significant role in the radiation-induced microstructure. The results summarized within highlight the need for additional data on the radiation tolerance of weldments as the mechanical performance of the fusion zone was shown to be the limiting factor in the overall performance of the weldments.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1410934
Report Number(s):
ORNL/TM-2017/379
100619
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Gussev, Maxim N., and Field, Kevin G.. Radiation Tolerance of Controlled Fusion Welds in High Temperature Oxidation Resistant FeCrAl Alloys. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1410934.
Gussev, Maxim N., & Field, Kevin G.. Radiation Tolerance of Controlled Fusion Welds in High Temperature Oxidation Resistant FeCrAl Alloys. United States. doi:10.2172/1410934.
Gussev, Maxim N., and Field, Kevin G.. 2017. "Radiation Tolerance of Controlled Fusion Welds in High Temperature Oxidation Resistant FeCrAl Alloys". United States. doi:10.2172/1410934. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1410934.
@article{osti_1410934,
title = {Radiation Tolerance of Controlled Fusion Welds in High Temperature Oxidation Resistant FeCrAl Alloys},
author = {Gussev, Maxim N. and Field, Kevin G.},
abstractNote = {High temperature oxidation resistant iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys are candidate alloys for nuclear applications due to their exceptional performance during off-normal conditions such as a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) compared to currently deployed zirconium-based claddings [1]. A series of studies have been completed to determine the weldability of the FeCrAl alloy class and investigate the weldment performance in the as-received (non-irradiated) state [2,3]. These initial studies have shown the general effects of composition and microstructure on the weldability of FeCrAl alloys. Given this, limited details on the radiation tolerance of FeCrAl alloys and their weldments exist. Here, the highest priority candidate FeCrAl alloys and their weldments have been investigated after irradiation to enable a better understanding of FeCrAl alloy weldment performance within a high-intensity neutron field. The alloys examined include C35M (Fe-13%Cr-5% Al) and variants with aluminum (+2%) or titanium carbide (+1%) additions. Two different sub-sized tensile geometries, SS-J type and SS-2E (or SS-mini), were neutron irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor to 1.8-1.9 displacements per atom (dpa) in the temperature range of 195°C to 559°C. Post irradiation examination of the candidate alloys was completed and included uniaxial tensile tests coupled with digital image correlation (DIC), scanning electron microscopy-electron back scattered diffraction analysis (SEM-EBSD), and SEM-based fractography. In addition to weldment testing, non-welded parent material was examined as a direct comparison between welded and non-welded specimen performance. Both welded and non-welded specimens showed a high degree of radiation-induced hardening near irradiation temperatures of 200°C, moderate radiation-induced hardening near temperatures of 360°C, and almost no radiation-induced hardening at elevated temperatures near 550°C. Additionally, low-temperature irradiations showed the non-welded specimens to exhibit strain-induced softening (decrease in the true stress level) with increasing plastic strain during tensile testing. Fracture for the weldments was found to occur exclusively within the fusion zone. The mechanical performance of the weldment was speculated to be directly linked to variances in the radiation-induced microstructure including the formation of dislocation loops and precipitation of the Cr-rich α' phase. The localized microstructural variation within the weldments, including grain size, was determined to play a significant role in the radiation-induced microstructure. The results summarized within highlight the need for additional data on the radiation tolerance of weldments as the mechanical performance of the fusion zone was shown to be the limiting factor in the overall performance of the weldments.},
doi = {10.2172/1410934},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 8
}

Technical Report:

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  • The present report summarizes and discusses the first year efforts towards developing a modern, nuclear grade FeCrAl alloy designed to have enhanced radiation tolerance and weldability under the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) program. Significant efforts have been made within the first year of this project including the fabrication of seven candidate FeCrAl alloys with well controlled chemistry and microstructure, the microstructural characterization of these alloys using standardized and advanced techniques, mechanical properties testing and evaluation of base alloys, the completion of welding trials and production of weldments for subsequent testing, the design of novel tensilemore » specimen geometry to increase the number of samples that can be irradiated in a single capsule and also shorten the time of their assessment after irradiation, the development of testing procedures for controlled hydrogen ingress studies, and a detailed mechanical and microstructural assessment of weldments prior to irradiation or hydrogen charging. These efforts and research results have shown promise for the FeCrAl alloy class as a new nuclear grade alloy class.« less
  • The present report summarizes and discusses the current results and on-going activity towards developing a modern, nuclear grade FeCrAl alloy designed to have enhanced radiation tolerance and weldability under the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) program.
  • The present report summarizes and discusses the recent results on developing a modern, nuclear grade FeCrAl alloy designed to have enhanced radiation tolerance and weldability. The alloys used for these investigations are modern FeCrAl alloys based on a Fe-13Cr-5Al-2Mo-0.2Si-0.05Y alloy (in wt.%, designated C35M). Development efforts have focused on assessing the influence of chemistry and microstructure on the fabricability and performance of these newly developed alloys. Specific focus was made to assess the weldability, thermal stability, and radiation tolerance.
  • Aluminide and beryllide coatings were applied to pure tantalum and Ta- 10% W sheet and evaluated. Some work was done with niobium alloys and with tantalum compounds. Methods of application included hot dipping in aluminum and tin base baths, slurry painting of aluminum alloys, and vapor-solid reactions for beryllium. Both types of coatings appear promising for 10 hours at 2500 deg to 2600 deg F and for somewhat shorter times at 2700 deg to 2800 deg F. Tin base baths gave duplex coatings which appear self healing and resistant to damage in handling. Anomalous aluminide coating behavior was noted belowmore » 2500 deg F. Several methods of oxidation testing were used and compared. Stability of surface compounds was investigated metallographically. (For preceding period see SCNC-315.) (auth)« less
  • The effect of various dipping times, temperatures, and diffusion treatments was determined for tantalum sheet dipped in aluminum alloy baths. Both aluminide and beryllide coatings were produced that will withstand oxidation for 10 hours at 2500 deg F, isothermally and cyclic. Aluminide coatings were obtained on a stressed niobium alloy that meets the same test conditions. (auth)