skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Characterization of temporal coherence of hard X-ray free-electron laser pulses with single-shot interferograms

Abstract

Temporal coherence is one of the most fundamental characteristics of light, connecting to spectral information through the Fourier transform relationship between time and frequency. Interferometers with a variable path-length difference (PLD) between the two branches have widely been employed to characterize temporal coherence properties for broad spectral regimes. Hard X-ray interferometers reported previously, however, have strict limitations in their operational photon energies, due to the specific optical layouts utilized to satisfy the stringent requirement for extreme stability of the PLD at sub-ångström scales. The work presented here characterizes the temporal coherence of hard X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses by capturing single-shot interferograms. Since the stability requirement is drastically relieved with this approach, it was possible to build a versatile hard X-ray interferometer composed of six separate optical elements to cover a wide photon energy range from 6.5 to 11.5 keV while providing a large variable delay time of up to 47 ps at 10 keV. A high visibility of up to 0.55 was observed at a photon energy of 10 keV. The visibility measurement as a function of time delay reveals a mean coherence time of 5.9 ± 0.7 fs, which agrees with that expected from the single-shot spectral information.more » In conclusion, this is the first result of characterizing the temporal coherence of XFEL pulses in the hard X-ray regime and is an important milestone towards ultra-high energy resolutions at micro-electronvolt levels in time-domain X-ray spectroscopy, which will open up new opportunities for revealing dynamic properties in diverse systems on timescales from femtoseconds to nanoseconds, associated with fluctuations from ångström to nanometre spatial scales.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [5];  [2];  [5]; ORCiD logo [3]
  1. RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Hyogo (Japan); Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan)
  2. Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan)
  3. RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Hyogo (Japan); Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), Hyogo (Japan)
  4. RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Hyogo (Japan)
  5. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1410553
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
IUCrJ
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 4; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 2052-2525
Publisher:
International Union of Crystallography
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; X-ray interferometry; split-and-delay optical system; X-ray free-electron lasers; temporal coherence

Citation Formats

Osaka, Taito, Hirano, Takashi, Morioka, Yuki, Sano, Yasuhisa, Inubushi, Yuichi, Togashi, Tadashi, Inoue, Ichiro, Tono, Kensuke, Robert, Aymeric, Yamauchi, Kazuto, Hastings, Jerome B., and Yabashi, Makina. Characterization of temporal coherence of hard X-ray free-electron laser pulses with single-shot interferograms. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1107/S2052252517014014.
Osaka, Taito, Hirano, Takashi, Morioka, Yuki, Sano, Yasuhisa, Inubushi, Yuichi, Togashi, Tadashi, Inoue, Ichiro, Tono, Kensuke, Robert, Aymeric, Yamauchi, Kazuto, Hastings, Jerome B., & Yabashi, Makina. Characterization of temporal coherence of hard X-ray free-electron laser pulses with single-shot interferograms. United States. doi:10.1107/S2052252517014014.
Osaka, Taito, Hirano, Takashi, Morioka, Yuki, Sano, Yasuhisa, Inubushi, Yuichi, Togashi, Tadashi, Inoue, Ichiro, Tono, Kensuke, Robert, Aymeric, Yamauchi, Kazuto, Hastings, Jerome B., and Yabashi, Makina. Fri . "Characterization of temporal coherence of hard X-ray free-electron laser pulses with single-shot interferograms". United States. doi:10.1107/S2052252517014014. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1410553.
@article{osti_1410553,
title = {Characterization of temporal coherence of hard X-ray free-electron laser pulses with single-shot interferograms},
author = {Osaka, Taito and Hirano, Takashi and Morioka, Yuki and Sano, Yasuhisa and Inubushi, Yuichi and Togashi, Tadashi and Inoue, Ichiro and Tono, Kensuke and Robert, Aymeric and Yamauchi, Kazuto and Hastings, Jerome B. and Yabashi, Makina},
abstractNote = {Temporal coherence is one of the most fundamental characteristics of light, connecting to spectral information through the Fourier transform relationship between time and frequency. Interferometers with a variable path-length difference (PLD) between the two branches have widely been employed to characterize temporal coherence properties for broad spectral regimes. Hard X-ray interferometers reported previously, however, have strict limitations in their operational photon energies, due to the specific optical layouts utilized to satisfy the stringent requirement for extreme stability of the PLD at sub-ångström scales. The work presented here characterizes the temporal coherence of hard X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses by capturing single-shot interferograms. Since the stability requirement is drastically relieved with this approach, it was possible to build a versatile hard X-ray interferometer composed of six separate optical elements to cover a wide photon energy range from 6.5 to 11.5 keV while providing a large variable delay time of up to 47 ps at 10 keV. A high visibility of up to 0.55 was observed at a photon energy of 10 keV. The visibility measurement as a function of time delay reveals a mean coherence time of 5.9 ± 0.7 fs, which agrees with that expected from the single-shot spectral information. In conclusion, this is the first result of characterizing the temporal coherence of XFEL pulses in the hard X-ray regime and is an important milestone towards ultra-high energy resolutions at micro-electronvolt levels in time-domain X-ray spectroscopy, which will open up new opportunities for revealing dynamic properties in diverse systems on timescales from femtoseconds to nanoseconds, associated with fluctuations from ångström to nanometre spatial scales.},
doi = {10.1107/S2052252517014014},
journal = {IUCrJ},
issn = {2052-2525},
number = 6,
volume = 4,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 6 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

An X‐Ray Interferometer
journal, April 1965

  • Bonse, U.; Hart, M.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 6, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1754212

First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser
journal, August 2010


An X-ray interferometer with a large and variable path length difference
journal, April 2001


XPCS at the European X-ray free electron laser facility
journal, September 2007

  • Grübel, G.; Stephenson, G. B.; Gutt, C.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 262, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2007.05.015

Measuring temporal speckle correlations at ultrafast x-ray sources
journal, December 2008


Performance of a hard X-ray split-and-delay optical system with a wavefront division
journal, January 2018

  • Hirano, Takashi; Osaka, Taito; Morioka, Yuki
  • Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Vol. 25, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1107/S1600577517014023

Development of speckle-free channel-cut crystal optics using plasma chemical vaporization machining for coherent x-ray applications
journal, June 2016

  • Hirano, Takashi; Osaka, Taito; Sano, Yasuhisa
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 87, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4954731

Characterizing transverse coherence of an ultra-intense focused X-ray free-electron laser by an extended Young's experiment
journal, September 2015


Measurement of the X-ray Spectrum of a Free Electron Laser with a Wide-Range High-Resolution Single-Shot Spectrometer
journal, June 2017

  • Inubushi, Yuichi; Inoue, Ichiro; Kim, Jangwoo
  • Applied Sciences, Vol. 7, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.3390/app7060584

Determination of the Pulse Duration of an X-Ray Free Electron Laser Using Highly Resolved Single-Shot Spectra
journal, October 2012


A compact X-ray free-electron laser emitting in the sub-ångström region
journal, June 2012


A beam branching method for timing and spectral characterization of hard X-ray free-electron lasers
journal, January 2016

  • Katayama, Tetsuo; Owada, Shigeki; Togashi, Tadashi
  • Structural Dynamics, Vol. 3, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4939655

A Proposal for an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Oscillator with an Energy-Recovery Linac
journal, June 2008


Single Shot Coherence Properties of the Free-Electron Laser SACLA in the Hard X-ray Regime
journal, June 2014

  • Lehmkühler, Felix; Gutt, Christian; Fischer, Birgit
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 4, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep05234

Evidence of partial temporal coherence effects in the linear autocorrelation of extreme ultraviolet laser pulses
journal, January 2016

  • Le Marec, Andréa; Guilbaud, Olivier; Larroche, Olivier
  • Optics Letters, Vol. 41, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1364/OL.41.003387

Spatio-temporal coherence of free electron laser pulses in the soft x-ray regime
journal, January 2008


Wavelength-tunable split-and-delay optical system for hard X-ray free-electron lasers
journal, January 2016

  • Osaka, Taito; Hirano, Takashi; Sano, Yasuhisa
  • Optics Express, Vol. 24, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1364/OE.24.009187

A Bragg beam splitter for hard x-ray free-electron lasers
journal, January 2013

  • Osaka, Taito; Yabashi, Makina; Sano, Yasuhisa
  • Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1364/OE.21.002823

Time-dependent wave front propagation simulation of a hard x-ray split-and-delay unit: Towards a measurement of the temporal coherence properties of x-ray free electron lasers
journal, November 2014

  • Roling, S.; Zacharias, H.; Samoylova, L.
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 17, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.17.110705

Development of a hard X-ray delay line for X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and jitter-free pump–probe experiments at X-ray free-electron laser sources
journal, March 2011

  • Roseker, Wojciech; Franz, Hermann; Schulte-Schrepping, Horst
  • Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Vol. 18, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1107/S0909049511004511

Performance of a picosecond x-ray delay line unit at 839 keV
journal, January 2009

  • Roseker, Wojciech; Franz, Hermann; Schulte-Schrepping, Horst
  • Optics Letters, Vol. 34, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1364/OL.34.001768

Design of a prototype split-and-delay unit for XFEL pulses, and their evaluation by synchrotron radiation X-rays
journal, January 2017

  • Sakamoto, Jun'ya; Ohwada, Kenji; Ishino, Masahiko
  • Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Vol. 24, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1107/S1600577516017744

Longitudinal coherence measurements of an extreme-ultraviolet free-electron laser
journal, January 2010

  • Schlotter, W. F.; Sorgenfrei, F.; Beeck, T.
  • Optics Letters, Vol. 35, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1364/OL.35.000372

X-Ray Interferometry with Microelectronvolt Resolution
journal, January 2003


Spatial and temporal coherence properties of single free-electron laser pulses
journal, January 2012

  • Singer, A.; Sorgenfrei, F.; Mancuso, A. P.
  • Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1364/OE.20.017480

Observation of speckle by diffraction with coherent X-rays
journal, August 1991

  • Sutton, M.; Mochrie, S. G. J.; Greytak, T.
  • Nature, Vol. 352, Issue 6336
  • DOI: 10.1038/352608a0

High-resolution Fourier transform x-ray spectroscopy
journal, October 2003

  • Tamasaku, Kenji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Yabashi, Makina
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 83, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1618023

Beamline, experimental stations and photon beam diagnostics for the hard x-ray free electron laser of SACLA
journal, August 2013


X-ray monochromator with an energy resolution of 8×10−9 at 14.41 keV
journal, November 2001

  • Yabashi, Makina; Tamasaku, Kenji; Kikuta, Seishi
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 72, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1406925

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Spatial and temporal pre-alignment of an X-ray split-and-delay unit by laser light interferometry
    journal, April 2019

    • Roseker, W.; Lee, S.; Walther, M.
    • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 90, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5089496

    Compact hard X-ray split-and-delay line for studying ultrafast dynamics at free-electron laser sources
    journal, June 2019

    • Rysov, Rustam; Roseker, Wojciech; Walther, Michael
    • Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Vol. 26, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1107/s1600577519004570

    Spatial and temporal pre-alignment of an X-ray split-and-delay unit by laser light interferometry
    journal, April 2019

    • Roseker, W.; Lee, S.; Walther, M.
    • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 90, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5089496

    Compact hard X-ray split-and-delay line for studying ultrafast dynamics at free-electron laser sources
    text, January 2019

    • Rysov, Rustam; Roseker, Wojciech; Walther, Michael
    • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
    • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2019-02307