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Title: BICEP2 / Keck Array IX: New bounds on anisotropies of CMB polarization rotation and implications for axionlike particles and primordial magnetic fields

Abstract

We present the strongest constraints to date on anisotropies of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization rotation derived from 150 GHz data taken by the BICEP2 & Keck Array CMB experiments up to and including the 2014 observing season (BK14). The definition of the polarization angle in BK14 maps has gone through self-calibration in which the overall angle is adjusted to minimize the observed TB and EB power spectra. After this procedure, the QU maps lose sensitivity to a uniform polarization rotation but are still sensitive to anisotropies of polarization rotation. This analysis places constraints on the anisotropies of polarization rotation, which could be generated by CMB photons interacting with axionlike pseudoscalar fields or Faraday rotation induced by primordial magnetic fields. The sensitivity of BK14 maps ( ~3 μK - arc min ) makes it possible to reconstruct anisotropies of the polarization rotation angle and measure their angular power spectrum much more precisely than previous attempts. Our data are found to be consistent with no polarization rotation anisotropies, improving the upper bound on the amplitude of the rotation angle spectrum by roughly an order of magnitude compared to the previous best constraints. Our results lead to an order of magnitude bettermore » constraint on the coupling constant of the Chern-Simons electromagnetic term g ≤ 7.2 × 10 -2/H I (95% confidence) than the constraint derived from the B -mode spectrum, where H I is the inflationary Hubble scale. This constraint leads to a limit on the decay constant of 10 -6 ≲ f a / M pl at mass range of 10 -33 ≤ m a ≤ 10 -28eV for r = 0.01 , assuming g ~ α/( 2πf a) with α denoting the fine structure constant. The upper bound on the amplitude of the primordial magnetic fields is 30 nG (95% confidence) from the polarization rotation anisotropies.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
OSTI Identifier:
1410518
Report Number(s):
BNL-114740-2017-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010; PRVDAQ; TRN: US1800119
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515; ANT-1145172; ANT-1145143; ANT-1145248; 06-ARPA206-0040; 10-SAT10-0017; SC0012704
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review D
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 96; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

Citation Formats

Ade, P. A. R., Ahmed, Z., Aikin, R. W., Alexander, K. D., Barkats, D., Benton, S. J., Bischoff, C. A., Bock, J. J., Bowens-Rubin, R., Brevik, J. A., Buder, I., Bullock, E., Buza, V., Connors, J., Crill, B. P., Duband, L., Dvorkin, C., Filippini, J. P., Fliescher, S., Germaine, T. St., Ghosh, T., Grayson, J., Harrison, S., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hilton, G. C., Hui, H., Irwin, K. D., Kang, J., Karkare, K. S., Karpel, E., Kaufman, J. P., Keating, B. G., Kefeli, S., Kernasovskiy, S. A., Kovac, J. M., Kuo, C. L., Larson, N., Leitch, E. M., Megerian, K. G., Moncelsi, L., Namikawa, T., Netterfield, C. B., Nguyen, H. T., O’Brient, R., Ogburn, R. W., Pryke, C., Richter, S., Schillaci, A., Schwarz, R., Sheehy, C. D., Staniszewski, Z. K., Steinbach, B., Sudiwala, R. V., Teply, G. P., Thompson, K. L., Tolan, J. E., Tucker, C., Turner, A. D., Vieregg, A. G., Weber, A. C., Wiebe, D. V., Willmert, J., Wong, C. L., Wu, W. L. K., and Yoon, K. W.. BICEP2 / Keck Array IX: New bounds on anisotropies of CMB polarization rotation and implications for axionlike particles and primordial magnetic fields. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.96.102003.
Ade, P. A. R., Ahmed, Z., Aikin, R. W., Alexander, K. D., Barkats, D., Benton, S. J., Bischoff, C. A., Bock, J. J., Bowens-Rubin, R., Brevik, J. A., Buder, I., Bullock, E., Buza, V., Connors, J., Crill, B. P., Duband, L., Dvorkin, C., Filippini, J. P., Fliescher, S., Germaine, T. St., Ghosh, T., Grayson, J., Harrison, S., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hilton, G. C., Hui, H., Irwin, K. D., Kang, J., Karkare, K. S., Karpel, E., Kaufman, J. P., Keating, B. G., Kefeli, S., Kernasovskiy, S. A., Kovac, J. M., Kuo, C. L., Larson, N., Leitch, E. M., Megerian, K. G., Moncelsi, L., Namikawa, T., Netterfield, C. B., Nguyen, H. T., O’Brient, R., Ogburn, R. W., Pryke, C., Richter, S., Schillaci, A., Schwarz, R., Sheehy, C. D., Staniszewski, Z. K., Steinbach, B., Sudiwala, R. V., Teply, G. P., Thompson, K. L., Tolan, J. E., Tucker, C., Turner, A. D., Vieregg, A. G., Weber, A. C., Wiebe, D. V., Willmert, J., Wong, C. L., Wu, W. L. K., & Yoon, K. W.. BICEP2 / Keck Array IX: New bounds on anisotropies of CMB polarization rotation and implications for axionlike particles and primordial magnetic fields. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.96.102003.
Ade, P. A. R., Ahmed, Z., Aikin, R. W., Alexander, K. D., Barkats, D., Benton, S. J., Bischoff, C. A., Bock, J. J., Bowens-Rubin, R., Brevik, J. A., Buder, I., Bullock, E., Buza, V., Connors, J., Crill, B. P., Duband, L., Dvorkin, C., Filippini, J. P., Fliescher, S., Germaine, T. St., Ghosh, T., Grayson, J., Harrison, S., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hilton, G. C., Hui, H., Irwin, K. D., Kang, J., Karkare, K. S., Karpel, E., Kaufman, J. P., Keating, B. G., Kefeli, S., Kernasovskiy, S. A., Kovac, J. M., Kuo, C. L., Larson, N., Leitch, E. M., Megerian, K. G., Moncelsi, L., Namikawa, T., Netterfield, C. B., Nguyen, H. T., O’Brient, R., Ogburn, R. W., Pryke, C., Richter, S., Schillaci, A., Schwarz, R., Sheehy, C. D., Staniszewski, Z. K., Steinbach, B., Sudiwala, R. V., Teply, G. P., Thompson, K. L., Tolan, J. E., Tucker, C., Turner, A. D., Vieregg, A. G., Weber, A. C., Wiebe, D. V., Willmert, J., Wong, C. L., Wu, W. L. K., and Yoon, K. W.. 2017. "BICEP2 / Keck Array IX: New bounds on anisotropies of CMB polarization rotation and implications for axionlike particles and primordial magnetic fields". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.96.102003.
@article{osti_1410518,
title = {BICEP2 / Keck Array IX: New bounds on anisotropies of CMB polarization rotation and implications for axionlike particles and primordial magnetic fields},
author = {Ade, P. A. R. and Ahmed, Z. and Aikin, R. W. and Alexander, K. D. and Barkats, D. and Benton, S. J. and Bischoff, C. A. and Bock, J. J. and Bowens-Rubin, R. and Brevik, J. A. and Buder, I. and Bullock, E. and Buza, V. and Connors, J. and Crill, B. P. and Duband, L. and Dvorkin, C. and Filippini, J. P. and Fliescher, S. and Germaine, T. St. and Ghosh, T. and Grayson, J. and Harrison, S. and Hildebrandt, S. R. and Hilton, G. C. and Hui, H. and Irwin, K. D. and Kang, J. and Karkare, K. S. and Karpel, E. and Kaufman, J. P. and Keating, B. G. and Kefeli, S. and Kernasovskiy, S. A. and Kovac, J. M. and Kuo, C. L. and Larson, N. and Leitch, E. M. and Megerian, K. G. and Moncelsi, L. and Namikawa, T. and Netterfield, C. B. and Nguyen, H. T. and O’Brient, R. and Ogburn, R. W. and Pryke, C. and Richter, S. and Schillaci, A. and Schwarz, R. and Sheehy, C. D. and Staniszewski, Z. K. and Steinbach, B. and Sudiwala, R. V. and Teply, G. P. and Thompson, K. L. and Tolan, J. E. and Tucker, C. and Turner, A. D. and Vieregg, A. G. and Weber, A. C. and Wiebe, D. V. and Willmert, J. and Wong, C. L. and Wu, W. L. K. and Yoon, K. W.},
abstractNote = {We present the strongest constraints to date on anisotropies of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization rotation derived from 150 GHz data taken by the BICEP2 & Keck Array CMB experiments up to and including the 2014 observing season (BK14). The definition of the polarization angle in BK14 maps has gone through self-calibration in which the overall angle is adjusted to minimize the observed TB and EB power spectra. After this procedure, the QU maps lose sensitivity to a uniform polarization rotation but are still sensitive to anisotropies of polarization rotation. This analysis places constraints on the anisotropies of polarization rotation, which could be generated by CMB photons interacting with axionlike pseudoscalar fields or Faraday rotation induced by primordial magnetic fields. The sensitivity of BK14 maps ( ~3 μK - arc min ) makes it possible to reconstruct anisotropies of the polarization rotation angle and measure their angular power spectrum much more precisely than previous attempts. Our data are found to be consistent with no polarization rotation anisotropies, improving the upper bound on the amplitude of the rotation angle spectrum by roughly an order of magnitude compared to the previous best constraints. Our results lead to an order of magnitude better constraint on the coupling constant of the Chern-Simons electromagnetic term gaγ ≤ 7.2 × 10-2/HI (95% confidence) than the constraint derived from the B -mode spectrum, where HI is the inflationary Hubble scale. This constraint leads to a limit on the decay constant of 10-6 ≲ fa / Mpl at mass range of 10-33 ≤ ma ≤ 10-28eV for r = 0.01 , assuming gaγ ~ α/( 2πfa) with α denoting the fine structure constant. The upper bound on the amplitude of the primordial magnetic fields is 30 nG (95% confidence) from the polarization rotation anisotropies.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.96.102003},
journal = {Physical Review D},
number = 10,
volume = 96,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month =
}

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  • We present the strongest constraints to date on anisotropies of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization rotation derived from 150 GHz data taken by the BICEP2 & Keck Array CMB experiments up to and including the 2014 observing season (BK14). The definition of the polarization angle in BK14 maps has gone through self-calibration in which the overall angle is adjusted to minimize the observed TB and EB power spectra. After this procedure, the QU maps lose sensitivity to a uniform polarization rotation but are still sensitive to anisotropies of polarization rotation. This analysis places constraints on the anisotropies of polarization rotation,more » which could be generated by CMB photons interacting with axionlike pseudoscalar fields or Faraday rotation induced by primordial magnetic fields. The sensitivity of BK14 maps ( ~3 μK - arc min ) makes it possible to reconstruct anisotropies of the polarization rotation angle and measure their angular power spectrum much more precisely than previous attempts. Our data are found to be consistent with no polarization rotation anisotropies, improving the upper bound on the amplitude of the rotation angle spectrum by roughly an order of magnitude compared to the previous best constraints. Our results lead to an order of magnitude better constraint on the coupling constant of the Chern-Simons electromagnetic term g ≤ 7.2 × 10 -2/H I (95% confidence) than the constraint derived from the B -mode spectrum, where H I is the inflationary Hubble scale. This constraint leads to a limit on the decay constant of 10 -6 ≲ f a / M pl at mass range of 10 -33 ≤ m a ≤ 10 -28eV for r = 0.01 , assuming g ~ α/( 2πf a) with α denoting the fine structure constant. The upper bound on the amplitude of the primordial magnetic fields is 30 nG (95% confidence) from the polarization rotation anisotropies.« less
    Cited by 1
  • Here, the Keck Array is a system of cosmic microwave background polarimeters, each similar to the Bicep2 experiment. In this paper we report results from the 2012 to 2013 observing seasons, during which the Keck Array consisted of five receivers all operating in the same (150 GHz) frequency band and observing field as Bicep2. We again find an excess of B-mode power over the lensed-ΛCDM expectation of >5σ in the range 30 < ℓ < 150 and confirm that this is not due to systematics using jackknife tests and simulations based on detailed calibration measurements. In map difference and spectralmore » difference tests these new data are shown to be consistent with Bicep2. Finally, we combine the maps from the two experiments to produce final Q and U maps which have a depth of 57 nK deg (3.4 μK arcmin) over an effective area of 400 deg 2 for an equivalent survey weight of 250,000 μK –2. The final BB band powers have noise uncertainty a factor of 2.3 times better than the previous results, and a significance of detection of excess power of >6σ.« less
  • The Keck Array is a system of cosmic microwave background polarimeters, each similar to the Bicep2 experiment. In this paper we report results from the 2012 to 2013 observing seasons, during which the Keck Array consisted of five receivers all operating in the same (150 GHz) frequency band and observing field as Bicep2. We again find an excess of B-mode power over the lensed-ΛCDM expectation of >5σ in the range 30 < ℓ < 150 and confirm that this is not due to systematics using jackknife tests and simulations based on detailed calibration measurements. In map difference and spectral differencemore » tests these new data are shown to be consistent with Bicep2. Finally, we combine the maps from the two experiments to produce final Q and U maps which have a depth of 57 nK deg (3.4 μK arcmin) over an effective area of 400 deg{sup 2} for an equivalent survey weight of 250,000 μK{sup −2}. The final BB band powers have noise uncertainty a factor of 2.3 times better than the previous results, and a significance of detection of excess power of >6σ.« less
  • bicep2/KECK ARRAY. IV. OPTICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND PERFORMANCE OF THE bicep2 AND KECK ARRAY EXPERIMENTS P. A. R. Ade1, R. W. Aikin2, D. Barkats3, S. J. Benton4, C. A. Bischoff5, J. J. Bock2,6, K. J. Bradford5, J. A. Brevik2, I. Buder5, E. Bullock7Show full author list Published 2015 June 18 • © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 806, Number 2 Article PDF Figures Tables References Citations 273 Total downloads Cited by 6 articles Turn on MathJax Share this article Get permission to re-use this article Article information Abstract bicep2 and the Keck Array aremore » polarization-sensitive microwave telescopes that observe the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the South Pole at degree angular scales in search of a signature of inflation imprinted as B-mode polarization in the CMB. bicep2 was deployed in late 2009, observed for three years until the end of 2012 at 150 GHz with 512 antenna-coupled transition edge sensor bolometers, and has reported a detection of B-mode polarization on degree angular scales. The Keck Array was first deployed in late 2010 and will observe through 2016 with five receivers at several frequencies (95, 150, and 220 GHz). bicep2 and the Keck Array share a common optical design and employ the field-proven bicep1 strategy of using small-aperture, cold, on-axis refractive optics, providing excellent control of systematics while maintaining a large field of view. This design allows for full characterization of far-field optical performance using microwave sources on the ground. Here we describe the optical design of both instruments and report a full characterization of the optical performance and beams of bicep2 and the Keck Array at 150 GHz.« less