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Title: The Fab Fire Protection and Life Safety Review.


Abstract not provided.

Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Garcia, Daniel M. The Fab Fire Protection and Life Safety Review.. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Garcia, Daniel M. The Fab Fire Protection and Life Safety Review.. United States.
Garcia, Daniel M. 2017. "The Fab Fire Protection and Life Safety Review.". United States. doi:.
title = {The Fab Fire Protection and Life Safety Review.},
author = {Garcia, Daniel M.},
abstractNote = {Abstract not provided.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month =

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  • The objective of this work is to develop a methodology for the evaluation of a fire protection system in a nuclear power plant and demonstrate the feasibility of encoding this method in a computer program. A Monte Carlo simulation has been developed; it is divided into the four phases of a fire scenario: ignition, detection, suppression and propagation. The ignition model consists of probabilistically determining at what location within the zone a fire will occur. The detection model is divided into two components. THe first is the automatic detection model, which calculates the fire's physical symptoms and compares them againstmore » the threshold values of the detectors specified for the zone to determine a time-to-detection. The second part is the human detection model; this evaluates the time required for a human to observe and report a fire. If detection is successful, the suppression mode determines if the fire is effectively extinguished, and if so, the time required to do so. This model is also divided into an automatic and human component. The propagation model is embedded in a deterministic, control-volume computer code which calculates the fire scenario history. A computer program, FIRES, is described which supports the developed models. FIRES is an interactive graphics package providing a simple means of establishing the many input parameters. In addition to allowing parameter values to be easily set or modified, the graphics provides a convenient display mode for the results of a simulation.« less
  • A methodology has been developed for the evaluation of the probability for loss of nuclear power plant safety functions due to fires. A framework for the investigation of fire scenarios involving safety-related equipment has been established which models fire development as a series of ignition, detection, suppression, and propagation steps. In addition to presenting various models for the quantitative evaluation of probabilities for these steps, generic values have been calculated to illustrate the application of this methodology to an existing boiling-water reactor (BWR). To place the numerical results in the context of reactor accident consequences, the probabilty for core damagemore » due to a nuclear plant fire at this representative BWR has been estimated. A value of 2.1 x 10/sup -4//plant-year was calculated, with an upper bound of .0013/plant-year. In the course of developing and applying this methodology, various techniques for modelling the events associated with fire development (ignitiion, detection, suppression, and propagation) have been identified. These are of interest in their own right, not only as part of the overall analysis. Fire ignition, automatic and human detection, extingushing agent effectiveness, and fire propagation have been determined to be the dominant factors for consideration in the analysis of a fire scenario. Also, other nuclear plant fire zones, besides the cable spreading and control rooms, have been found to be critical with respect to fire loss of safety functions, especially the switchgear rooms.« less
  • Fire-tubes are good candidates for indirect heating of pyrolysis and gasification reactors because of their simplicity and low cost. Typical fire-tube designs use empty tubes filled with hot combustion gases. The open-tube design suffers from a low overall thermal efficiency, typically on the order of 30 to 70%. In this study, a new type of fire-tube was designed and evaluated. In the new design a multi-tube burner was used to obtain a more symmetrical flame. A packed bed was used in the fire-tube to obtain a higher overall thermal efficiency. The packed bed not only confined the flame to themore » combustion zone, but also increased the radial thermal conductivity between the hot combustion gases and the fire-tube wall. The thermal performance of the new fire-tube design was determined by measuring temperature profiles along the tube wall, radiant heat flux profiles from the tube, and overall heat balances. A mathematical model was developed to predict the fire-tube performance at pyrolysis and gasification reactor conditions. The overall thermal efficiencies computed from the temperature profiles agreed with the experimental thermal efficiencies to within 3%.« less
  • An underground mine fire that threatens life and property has been burning below the coal-mining community of Centralia, Pennsylvania since 1962. This study examined what the victims of this creeping disaster expect from their government in relation to the actual government response. Data were gathered through participant observation between September 1981 and January 1982 and through 77 randomly sampled interviews. This disaster divided the community into those who did and did not want more government action. The duration of the disaster, meaning of personal property, conflicts of information, and lack of a responsible party prohibit community cohesion. The majority ofmore » Centralians wanted the fire extinguished and would relocate if necessary. Supporters of more government interventions were better educated, had higher incomes, and were younger than those opposed to action. Conflicts within the community prohibited unified public protest needed to ensure appropriate government response. Federal, state, and local governments responded by shifting responsibility, which resulted in maximizing costs borne by the individual. The governments minimal intervention collided with the expectations of the people. Centralia typifies the problems that technological advances have created. The need to expand the definition of public welfare to include compensating victims of creeping disasters was discussed.« less
  • In May 2000, the Cerro Grande Fire burned approximately 17,200 ha in north-central New Mexico as the result of an escaped prescribed burn initiated by Bandelier National Monument. The interaction of large-scale fires, vegetation, and elk is an important management issue, but few studies have addressed the ecological implications of vegetative succession and landscape heterogeneity on ungulate populations following large-scale disturbance events. Primary objectives of this research were to identify elk movement pathways on local and landscape scales, to determine environmental factors that influence elk movement, and to evaluate movement and distribution patterns in relation to spatial and temporal aspectsmore » of the Cerro Grande Fire. Data collection and assimilation reflect the collaborative efforts of National Park Service, U.S. Forest Service, and Department of Energy (Los Alamos National Laboratory) personnel. Geographic positioning system (GPS) collars were used to track 54 elk over a period of 3+ years and locational data were incorporated into a multi-layered geographic information system (GIS) for analysis. Preliminary tests of GPS collar accuracy indicated a strong effect of 2D fixes on position acquisition rates (PARs) depending on time of day and season of year. Slope, aspect, elevation, and land cover type affected dilution of precision (DOP) values for both 2D and 3D fixes, although significant relationships varied from positive to negative making it difficult to delineate the mechanism behind significant responses. Two-dimensional fixes accounted for 34% of all successfully acquired locations and may affect results in which those data were used. Overall position acquisition rate was 93.3% and mean DOP values were consistently in the range of 4.0 to 6.0 leading to the conclusion collar accuracy was acceptable for modeling purposes. SAVANNA, a spatially explicit, process-oriented ecosystem model, was used to simulate successional dynamics. Inputs to the SAVANNA included a land cover map, long-term weather data, soil maps, and a digital elevation model. Parameterization and calibration were conducted using field plots. Model predictions of herbaceous biomass production and weather were consistent with available data and spatial interpolations of snow were considered reasonable for this study. Dynamic outputs generated by SAVANNA were integrated with static variables, movement rules, and parameters developed for the individual-based model through the application of a habitat suitability index. Model validation indicated reasonable model fit when compared to an independent test set. The finished model was applied to 2 realistic management scenarios for the Jemez Mountains and management implications were discussed. Ongoing validation of the individual-based model presented in this dissertation provides an adaptive management tool that integrates interdisciplinary experience and scientific information, which allows users to make predictions about the impact of alternative management policies.« less