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Title: Intraplate mantle oxidation by volatile-rich silicic magmas

Abstract

The upper subcontinental lithospheric mantle below the French Massif Central is more oxidized than the average continental lithosphere, although the origin of this anomaly remains unknown. Using iron oxidation analysis in clinopyroxene, oxybarometry, and melt inclusions in mantle xenoliths, we show that widespread infiltration of volatile (HCSO)-rich silicic melts played a major role in this oxidation. We propose the first comprehensive model of magmatism and mantle oxidation at an intraplate setting. Two oxidizing events occurred: (1) a 365–286 Ma old magmatic episode that produced alkaline vaugnerites, potassic lamprophyres, and K-rich calc-alkaline granitoids, related to the N–S Rhenohercynian subduction, and (2) < 30 Ma old magmatism related to W–E extension, producing carbonatites and hydrous potassic trachytes. These melts were capable of locally increasing the subcontinental lithospheric mantle fO2 to FMQ + 2.4. Both events originate from the melting of a metasomatized lithosphere containing carbonate + phlogopite ± amphibole. The persistence of this volatile-rich lithospheric source implies the potential for new episodes of volatile-rich magmatism. Similarities with worldwide magmatism also show that the importance of volatiles and the oxidation of the mantle in intraplate regions is underestimated.

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1410109
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Lithos; Journal Volume: 292-293; Journal Issue: C
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
ENGLISH
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Martin, Audrey M., Médard, Etienne, Righter, Kevin, and Lanzirotti, Antonio. Intraplate mantle oxidation by volatile-rich silicic magmas. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.lithos.2017.09.002.
Martin, Audrey M., Médard, Etienne, Righter, Kevin, & Lanzirotti, Antonio. Intraplate mantle oxidation by volatile-rich silicic magmas. United States. doi:10.1016/j.lithos.2017.09.002.
Martin, Audrey M., Médard, Etienne, Righter, Kevin, and Lanzirotti, Antonio. Wed . "Intraplate mantle oxidation by volatile-rich silicic magmas". United States. doi:10.1016/j.lithos.2017.09.002.
@article{osti_1410109,
title = {Intraplate mantle oxidation by volatile-rich silicic magmas},
author = {Martin, Audrey M. and Médard, Etienne and Righter, Kevin and Lanzirotti, Antonio},
abstractNote = {The upper subcontinental lithospheric mantle below the French Massif Central is more oxidized than the average continental lithosphere, although the origin of this anomaly remains unknown. Using iron oxidation analysis in clinopyroxene, oxybarometry, and melt inclusions in mantle xenoliths, we show that widespread infiltration of volatile (HCSO)-rich silicic melts played a major role in this oxidation. We propose the first comprehensive model of magmatism and mantle oxidation at an intraplate setting. Two oxidizing events occurred: (1) a 365–286 Ma old magmatic episode that produced alkaline vaugnerites, potassic lamprophyres, and K-rich calc-alkaline granitoids, related to the N–S Rhenohercynian subduction, and (2) < 30 Ma old magmatism related to W–E extension, producing carbonatites and hydrous potassic trachytes. These melts were capable of locally increasing the subcontinental lithospheric mantle fO2 to FMQ + 2.4. Both events originate from the melting of a metasomatized lithosphere containing carbonate + phlogopite ± amphibole. The persistence of this volatile-rich lithospheric source implies the potential for new episodes of volatile-rich magmatism. Similarities with worldwide magmatism also show that the importance of volatiles and the oxidation of the mantle in intraplate regions is underestimated.},
doi = {10.1016/j.lithos.2017.09.002},
journal = {Lithos},
number = C,
volume = 292-293,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Nov 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Wed Nov 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}
  • LOW-180 silicic magmas are reported from only a small number of localities (e.g., Yellowstone and Iceland), yet petrologic evidence points to upper crustal assimilation coupled with fractional crystallization (AFC) during magma genesis for nearly all silicic magmas. The rarity of 10W-l `O magmas in intracontinental caldera settings is remarkable given the evidence of intense 10W-l*O meteoric hydrothermal alteration in the subvolcanic remnants of larger caldera systems. In the Platoro caldera complex, regional ignimbrites (150-1000 km3) have plagioclase 6180 values of 6.8 + 0.1%., whereas the Middle Tuff, a small-volume (est. 50-100 km3) post-caldera collapse pyroclastic sequence, has plagioclase 8]80 valuesmore » between 5.5 and 6.8%o. On average, the plagioclase phenocrysts from the Middle Tuff are depleted by only 0.3%0 relative to those in the regional tuffs. At Yellowstone, small-volume post-caldera collapse intracaldera rhyolites are up to 5.5%o depleted relative to the regional ignimbrites. Two important differences between the Middle Tuff and the Yellowstone 10W-180 rhyolites elucidate the problem. Middle Tuff magmas reached water saturation and erupted explosively, whereas most of the 10W-l 80 Yellowstone rhyolites erupted effusively as domes or flows, and are nearly devoid of hydrous phenocrysts. Comparing the two eruptive types indicates that assimilation of 10W-180 material, combined with fractional crystallization, drives silicic melts to water oversaturation. Water saturated magmas either erupt explosively or quench as subsurface porphyrins bejiire the magmatic 180 can be dramatically lowered. Partial melting of low- 180 subvolcanic rocks by near-anhydrous magmas at Yellowstone produced small- volume, 10W-180 magmas directly, thereby circumventing the water saturation barrier encountered through normal AFC processes.« less
  • No abstract prepared.
  • The bulk diffusivity of dissolved CO{sub 2} in obsidian and dacite melts containing 0-11 wt% dissolved water at 800-1,100C and 1 GPa was characterized using a {sup 14}C radiotracer technique. Five values were also obtained for Cl in melts containing 8% H{sub 2}O. Carbon dioxide diffusivity (D{sub CO{sub 2}}) in nominally dry molten obsidian is similar to previously reported values for a simple melt in the Na{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} system and for dry basalt, indicating little effect of melt composition on bulk CO{sub 2} diffusion. Three D{sub CO{sub 2}} values for hydrous dacite melt are consistent with thismore » lack of a melt composition effect. Dissolved water, however, causes an increase of D{sub CO{sub 2}} in molten obsidian by about an order of magnitude for each 5% of added water. The activation energy of {approximately}18 kcal/mol is lower by a factor of {approximately}3 than that for diffusion in dry basalt. In comparison with existing data for diffusion of water in silicic melts at their typical liquidus temperatures, D{sub CO{sub 2}} is generally lower unless the melt contains more than about 6% dissolved H{sub 2}O, in which case D{sub CO{sub 2}} {approximately} D{sub H{sub 2}0}. The few data obtained from chlorine diffusion reveal the D{sub Cl} is lower by a factor of 5-10 than D{sub CO{sub 2}} in the same melt. The overall systematics of the new data on dissolved volatile diffusion indicate that diffusional fractionation effects are likely to be most significant in silicic to intermediate magmas having water contents in the 0-4% range.« less