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Title: Empirical Profiling of Cold Hydrogen Plumes Formed from Venting Of LH2 Storage Vessels: Preprint

Abstract

Liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage is a viable approach to assuring sufficient hydrogen capacity at commercial fuelling stations. Presently, LH2 is produced at remote facilities and then transported to the end-use site by road vehicles (i.e., LH2 tanker trucks). Venting of hydrogen to depressurize the transport storage tank is a routine part of the LH2 delivery process. The behaviour of cold hydrogen plumes has not been well-characterized because empirical field data is essentially non-existent. The NFPA 2 Hydrogen Storage Safety Task Group, which consists of hydrogen producers, safety experts, and CFD modellers, has identified the lack of understanding of hydrogen dispersion during LH2 venting of storage vessel as a critical gap for establishing safety distances at LH2 facilities, especially commercial hydrogen fuelling stations. To address this need, the NREL sensor laboratory, in collaboration with the NFPA 2 Safety Task Group developed the Cold Hydrogen Plume Analyzer to empirically characterize the hydrogen plume formed during LH2 storage tank venting. A prototype Analyzer was developed and field-deployed at an actual LH2 venting operation with critical findings that included: - H2 being detected as much as 2 m lower than the release point, which is not predicted by existing models - A small andmore » inconsistent correlation between oxygen depletion and the hydrogen concentration - A negligible to non-existent correlation between in-situ temperature and the hydrogen concentration The Analyzer is currently being upgraded for enhanced metrological capabilities including improved real-time spatial and temporal profiling of the plume and tracking of prevailing weather conditions. Additional deployments are planned to monitor plume behaviour under different wind, humidity, and temperatures. This data will be shared with the NFPA 2 Safety Task Group and ultimately will be used support theoretical models and code requirements prescribed in NFPA 2.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  2. Joint Research Centre, Petten, the Netherlands
  3. H2 Fueling and CIP Markets Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Fuel Cell Technologies Office (EE-3F)
OSTI Identifier:
1410097
Report Number(s):
NREL/CP-5400-68771
DOE Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Presented at the 7th International Conference on Hydrogen Safety (ICHS 2017), 11-13 September 2017, Hamburg, Germany
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
30 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION; LH2; GH2; safety; gas detection; dispersion

Citation Formats

Buttner, William J, Rivkin, Carl H, Schmidt, Kara, Hartmann, Kevin S, Wright, Hannah, Weidner, Eveline, and Ciotti, Michael. Empirical Profiling of Cold Hydrogen Plumes Formed from Venting Of LH2 Storage Vessels: Preprint. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Buttner, William J, Rivkin, Carl H, Schmidt, Kara, Hartmann, Kevin S, Wright, Hannah, Weidner, Eveline, & Ciotti, Michael. Empirical Profiling of Cold Hydrogen Plumes Formed from Venting Of LH2 Storage Vessels: Preprint. United States.
Buttner, William J, Rivkin, Carl H, Schmidt, Kara, Hartmann, Kevin S, Wright, Hannah, Weidner, Eveline, and Ciotti, Michael. Thu . "Empirical Profiling of Cold Hydrogen Plumes Formed from Venting Of LH2 Storage Vessels: Preprint". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1410097.
@article{osti_1410097,
title = {Empirical Profiling of Cold Hydrogen Plumes Formed from Venting Of LH2 Storage Vessels: Preprint},
author = {Buttner, William J and Rivkin, Carl H and Schmidt, Kara and Hartmann, Kevin S and Wright, Hannah and Weidner, Eveline and Ciotti, Michael},
abstractNote = {Liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage is a viable approach to assuring sufficient hydrogen capacity at commercial fuelling stations. Presently, LH2 is produced at remote facilities and then transported to the end-use site by road vehicles (i.e., LH2 tanker trucks). Venting of hydrogen to depressurize the transport storage tank is a routine part of the LH2 delivery process. The behaviour of cold hydrogen plumes has not been well-characterized because empirical field data is essentially non-existent. The NFPA 2 Hydrogen Storage Safety Task Group, which consists of hydrogen producers, safety experts, and CFD modellers, has identified the lack of understanding of hydrogen dispersion during LH2 venting of storage vessel as a critical gap for establishing safety distances at LH2 facilities, especially commercial hydrogen fuelling stations. To address this need, the NREL sensor laboratory, in collaboration with the NFPA 2 Safety Task Group developed the Cold Hydrogen Plume Analyzer to empirically characterize the hydrogen plume formed during LH2 storage tank venting. A prototype Analyzer was developed and field-deployed at an actual LH2 venting operation with critical findings that included: - H2 being detected as much as 2 m lower than the release point, which is not predicted by existing models - A small and inconsistent correlation between oxygen depletion and the hydrogen concentration - A negligible to non-existent correlation between in-situ temperature and the hydrogen concentration The Analyzer is currently being upgraded for enhanced metrological capabilities including improved real-time spatial and temporal profiling of the plume and tracking of prevailing weather conditions. Additional deployments are planned to monitor plume behaviour under different wind, humidity, and temperatures. This data will be shared with the NFPA 2 Safety Task Group and ultimately will be used support theoretical models and code requirements prescribed in NFPA 2.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Nov 16 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Thu Nov 16 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Conference:
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