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Title: Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian oscillation: Exploring key model physics in climate simulations

Abstract

Aimed at reducing deficiencies in representing the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) in general circulation models (GCMs), a global model evaluation project on vertical structure and physical processes of the MJO was coordinated. In this paper, results from the climate simulation component of this project are reported. Here, it is shown that the MJO remains a great challenge in these latest generation GCMs. The systematic eastward propagation of the MJO is only well simulated in about one fourth of the total participating models. The observed vertical westward tilt with altitude of the MJO is well simulated in good MJO models but not in the poor ones. Damped Kelvin wave responses to the east of convection in the lower troposphere could be responsible for the missing MJO preconditioning process in these poor MJO models. Several process-oriented diagnostics were conducted to discriminate key processes for realistic MJO simulations. While large-scale rainfall partition and low-level mean zonal winds over the Indo-Pacific in a model are not found to be closely associated with its MJO skill, two metrics, including the low-level relative humidity difference between high- and low-rain events and seasonal mean gross moist stability, exhibit statistically significant correlations with the MJO performance. It is furthermore » indicated that increased cloud-radiative feedback tends to be associated with reduced amplitude of intraseasonal variability, which is incompatible with the radiative instability theory previously proposed for the MJO. Finally, results in this study confirm that inclusion of air-sea interaction can lead to significant improvement in simulating the MJO.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [3];  [1];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [12];  [13];  [14];  [15];  [16] more »;  [17];  [18];  [19];  [20];  [21];  [22];  [23];  [24];  [25];  [26];  [20];  [27] « less
  1. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Joint Inst. for Regional Earth System Science and Engineering; California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.
  2. UK Met Office, Exeter (United Kingdom)
  3. Univ. of Reading, Reading (United Kingdom). National Centre for Atmospheric Science and Dept. of Meteorology
  4. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Toulouse (France). Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques (CNRM-GAME)
  5. Max Planck Inst. for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany)
  6. Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Science
  7. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)
  8. Environment Canada, Dorval, Quebec (Canada)
  9. Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). State Key Lab. of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Inst. of Atmospheric Physics
  10. Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
  11. Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Science
  12. Central Weather Bureau, Taipei (Taiwan)
  13. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  14. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka (Japan). Dept. of Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Land Processes Research
  15. Naval Research Lab. (NRL), Monterey, CA (United States)
  16. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States). Global Modeling and Assimilation Office
  17. Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Environment Canada, Victoria, BC (Canada)
  18. Pusan National Univ., Pusan (South Korea)
  19. Meteorological Research Inst., Tsukuba (Japan). Climate Research Dept.
  20. Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography
  21. George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Earth Sciences
  22. Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan). University Research Center for Environmental Changes
  23. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Camp Springs, MD (United States). Climate Prediction Center, National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP-NOAA)
  24. China Meteorological Administration, Beijing (China). Beijing Climate Center
  25. Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences
  26. Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Norrkoping (Sweden). Rossby Centre
  27. Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Melbourne, Vic (Australia). Bureau of Meteorology
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1409988
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-741128
Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 120; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Jiang, Xianan, Waliser, Duane E., Xavier, Prince K., Petch, Jon, Klingaman, Nicholas P., Woolnough, Steven J., Guan, Bin, Bellon, Gilles, Crueger, Traute, DeMott, Charlotte, Hannay, Cecile, Lin, Hai, Hu, Wenting, Kim, Daehyun, Lappen, Cara-Lyn, Lu, Mong-Ming, Ma, Hsi-Yen, Miyakawa, Tomoki, Ridout, James A., Schubert, Siegfried D., Scinocca, John, Seo, Kyong-Hwan, Shindo, Eiki, Song, Xiaoliang, Stan, Cristiana, Tseng, Wan-Ling, Wang, Wanqiu, Wu, Tongwen, Wu, Xiaoqing, Wyser, Klaus, Zhang, Guang J., and Zhu, Hongyan. Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian oscillation: Exploring key model physics in climate simulations. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1002/2014JD022375.
Jiang, Xianan, Waliser, Duane E., Xavier, Prince K., Petch, Jon, Klingaman, Nicholas P., Woolnough, Steven J., Guan, Bin, Bellon, Gilles, Crueger, Traute, DeMott, Charlotte, Hannay, Cecile, Lin, Hai, Hu, Wenting, Kim, Daehyun, Lappen, Cara-Lyn, Lu, Mong-Ming, Ma, Hsi-Yen, Miyakawa, Tomoki, Ridout, James A., Schubert, Siegfried D., Scinocca, John, Seo, Kyong-Hwan, Shindo, Eiki, Song, Xiaoliang, Stan, Cristiana, Tseng, Wan-Ling, Wang, Wanqiu, Wu, Tongwen, Wu, Xiaoqing, Wyser, Klaus, Zhang, Guang J., & Zhu, Hongyan. Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian oscillation: Exploring key model physics in climate simulations. United States. https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JD022375
Jiang, Xianan, Waliser, Duane E., Xavier, Prince K., Petch, Jon, Klingaman, Nicholas P., Woolnough, Steven J., Guan, Bin, Bellon, Gilles, Crueger, Traute, DeMott, Charlotte, Hannay, Cecile, Lin, Hai, Hu, Wenting, Kim, Daehyun, Lappen, Cara-Lyn, Lu, Mong-Ming, Ma, Hsi-Yen, Miyakawa, Tomoki, Ridout, James A., Schubert, Siegfried D., Scinocca, John, Seo, Kyong-Hwan, Shindo, Eiki, Song, Xiaoliang, Stan, Cristiana, Tseng, Wan-Ling, Wang, Wanqiu, Wu, Tongwen, Wu, Xiaoqing, Wyser, Klaus, Zhang, Guang J., and Zhu, Hongyan. Wed . "Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian oscillation: Exploring key model physics in climate simulations". United States. https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JD022375. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1409988.
@article{osti_1409988,
title = {Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian oscillation: Exploring key model physics in climate simulations},
author = {Jiang, Xianan and Waliser, Duane E. and Xavier, Prince K. and Petch, Jon and Klingaman, Nicholas P. and Woolnough, Steven J. and Guan, Bin and Bellon, Gilles and Crueger, Traute and DeMott, Charlotte and Hannay, Cecile and Lin, Hai and Hu, Wenting and Kim, Daehyun and Lappen, Cara-Lyn and Lu, Mong-Ming and Ma, Hsi-Yen and Miyakawa, Tomoki and Ridout, James A. and Schubert, Siegfried D. and Scinocca, John and Seo, Kyong-Hwan and Shindo, Eiki and Song, Xiaoliang and Stan, Cristiana and Tseng, Wan-Ling and Wang, Wanqiu and Wu, Tongwen and Wu, Xiaoqing and Wyser, Klaus and Zhang, Guang J. and Zhu, Hongyan},
abstractNote = {Aimed at reducing deficiencies in representing the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) in general circulation models (GCMs), a global model evaluation project on vertical structure and physical processes of the MJO was coordinated. In this paper, results from the climate simulation component of this project are reported. Here, it is shown that the MJO remains a great challenge in these latest generation GCMs. The systematic eastward propagation of the MJO is only well simulated in about one fourth of the total participating models. The observed vertical westward tilt with altitude of the MJO is well simulated in good MJO models but not in the poor ones. Damped Kelvin wave responses to the east of convection in the lower troposphere could be responsible for the missing MJO preconditioning process in these poor MJO models. Several process-oriented diagnostics were conducted to discriminate key processes for realistic MJO simulations. While large-scale rainfall partition and low-level mean zonal winds over the Indo-Pacific in a model are not found to be closely associated with its MJO skill, two metrics, including the low-level relative humidity difference between high- and low-rain events and seasonal mean gross moist stability, exhibit statistically significant correlations with the MJO performance. It is further indicated that increased cloud-radiative feedback tends to be associated with reduced amplitude of intraseasonal variability, which is incompatible with the radiative instability theory previously proposed for the MJO. Finally, results in this study confirm that inclusion of air-sea interaction can lead to significant improvement in simulating the MJO.},
doi = {10.1002/2014JD022375},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1409988}, journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres},
issn = {2169-897X},
number = 10,
volume = 120,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {5}
}

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