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Title: In situ X-ray diffraction measurement of shock-wave-driven twinning and lattice dynamics

Abstract

We report that pressure-driven shock waves in solid materials can cause extreme damage and deformation. Understanding this deformation and the associated defects that are created in the material is crucial in the study of a wide range of phenomena, including planetary formation and asteroid impact sites, the formation of interstellar dust clouds, ballistic penetrators, spacecraft shielding and ductility in high-performance ceramics. At the lattice level, the basic mechanisms of plastic deformation are twinning (whereby crystallites with a mirror-image lattice form) and slip (whereby lattice dislocations are generated and move), but determining which of these mechanisms is active during deformation is challenging. Experiments that characterized lattice defects have typically examined the microstructure of samples after deformation, and so are complicated by post-shock annealing and reverberations. In addition, measurements have been limited to relatively modest pressures (less than 100 gigapascals). In situ X-ray diffraction experiments can provide insights into the dynamic behaviour of materials, but have only recently been applied to plasticity during shock compression and have yet to provide detailed insight into competing deformation mechanisms. Here we present X-ray diffraction experiments with femtosecond resolution that capture in situ, lattice-level information on the microstructural processes that drive shock-wave-driven deformation. To demonstrate thismore » method we shock-compress the body-centred-cubic material tantalum—an important material for high-energy-density physics owing to its high shock impedance and high X-ray opacity. Tantalum is also a material for which previous shock compression simulations and experiments have provided conflicting information about the dominant deformation mechanism. Our experiments reveal twinning and related lattice rotation occurring on the timescale of tens of picoseconds. In addition, despite the common association between twinning and strong shocks, we find a transition from twinning to dislocation-slip-dominated plasticity at high pressure (more than 150 gigapascals), a regime that recovery experiments cannot accurately access. Lastly, the techniques demonstrated here will be useful for studying shock waves and other high-strain-rate phenomena, as well as a broad range of processes induced by plasticity.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [1];  [5];  [5];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [5];  [1];  [2]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. University of Oxford (United Kingdom). Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics
  3. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  4. Univ. of York (United Kingdom). Department of Physics
  5. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) (SC-24)
OSTI Identifier:
1409985
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-703124
Journal ID: ISSN 0028-0836
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344; AC52-06NA25396; AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature (London)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Nature (London); Journal Volume: 550; Journal Issue: 7677; Journal ID: ISSN 0028-0836
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY

Citation Formats

Wehrenberg, C. E., McGonegle, D., Bolme, C., Higginbotham, A., Lazicki, A., Lee, H. J., Nagler, B., Park, H. -S., Remington, B. A., Rudd, R. E., Sliwa, M., Suggit, M., Swift, D., Tavella, F., Zepeda-Ruiz, L., and Wark, J. S.. In situ X-ray diffraction measurement of shock-wave-driven twinning and lattice dynamics. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1038/nature24061.
Wehrenberg, C. E., McGonegle, D., Bolme, C., Higginbotham, A., Lazicki, A., Lee, H. J., Nagler, B., Park, H. -S., Remington, B. A., Rudd, R. E., Sliwa, M., Suggit, M., Swift, D., Tavella, F., Zepeda-Ruiz, L., & Wark, J. S.. In situ X-ray diffraction measurement of shock-wave-driven twinning and lattice dynamics. United States. doi:10.1038/nature24061.
Wehrenberg, C. E., McGonegle, D., Bolme, C., Higginbotham, A., Lazicki, A., Lee, H. J., Nagler, B., Park, H. -S., Remington, B. A., Rudd, R. E., Sliwa, M., Suggit, M., Swift, D., Tavella, F., Zepeda-Ruiz, L., and Wark, J. S.. 2017. "In situ X-ray diffraction measurement of shock-wave-driven twinning and lattice dynamics". United States. doi:10.1038/nature24061.
@article{osti_1409985,
title = {In situ X-ray diffraction measurement of shock-wave-driven twinning and lattice dynamics},
author = {Wehrenberg, C. E. and McGonegle, D. and Bolme, C. and Higginbotham, A. and Lazicki, A. and Lee, H. J. and Nagler, B. and Park, H. -S. and Remington, B. A. and Rudd, R. E. and Sliwa, M. and Suggit, M. and Swift, D. and Tavella, F. and Zepeda-Ruiz, L. and Wark, J. S.},
abstractNote = {We report that pressure-driven shock waves in solid materials can cause extreme damage and deformation. Understanding this deformation and the associated defects that are created in the material is crucial in the study of a wide range of phenomena, including planetary formation and asteroid impact sites, the formation of interstellar dust clouds, ballistic penetrators, spacecraft shielding and ductility in high-performance ceramics. At the lattice level, the basic mechanisms of plastic deformation are twinning (whereby crystallites with a mirror-image lattice form) and slip (whereby lattice dislocations are generated and move), but determining which of these mechanisms is active during deformation is challenging. Experiments that characterized lattice defects have typically examined the microstructure of samples after deformation, and so are complicated by post-shock annealing and reverberations. In addition, measurements have been limited to relatively modest pressures (less than 100 gigapascals). In situ X-ray diffraction experiments can provide insights into the dynamic behaviour of materials, but have only recently been applied to plasticity during shock compression and have yet to provide detailed insight into competing deformation mechanisms. Here we present X-ray diffraction experiments with femtosecond resolution that capture in situ, lattice-level information on the microstructural processes that drive shock-wave-driven deformation. To demonstrate this method we shock-compress the body-centred-cubic material tantalum—an important material for high-energy-density physics owing to its high shock impedance and high X-ray opacity. Tantalum is also a material for which previous shock compression simulations and experiments have provided conflicting information about the dominant deformation mechanism. Our experiments reveal twinning and related lattice rotation occurring on the timescale of tens of picoseconds. In addition, despite the common association between twinning and strong shocks, we find a transition from twinning to dislocation-slip-dominated plasticity at high pressure (more than 150 gigapascals), a regime that recovery experiments cannot accurately access. Lastly, the techniques demonstrated here will be useful for studying shock waves and other high-strain-rate phenomena, as well as a broad range of processes induced by plasticity.},
doi = {10.1038/nature24061},
journal = {Nature (London)},
number = 7677,
volume = 550,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month =
}

Journal Article:
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