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Title: A Direct Manufacturing Cost Model for Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks

 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Mailstop 90R-2002 94720 Berkeley, CA USA
  2. University of California, Berkeley, Etcheverry Hall, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hearst Ave #6141 94720 Berkeley, CA USA
  3. University of California, Berkeley, Transportation Sustainability Research Center, University of California Richmond Field Station 1301 S. 46th Street, Building 190 94804-3580 Richmond, CA USA
  4. Polytechnic University of Turin, Department of Energy, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24 10129 Torino Italy
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
OSTI Identifier:
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Fuel Cells
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 17; Journal Issue: 6; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-12-14 09:44:24; Journal ID: ISSN 1615-6846
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Country of Publication:

Citation Formats

Scataglini, R., Wei, M., Mayyas, A., Chan, S. H., Lipman, T., and Santarelli, M.. A Direct Manufacturing Cost Model for Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks. Germany: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/fuce.201700012.
Scataglini, R., Wei, M., Mayyas, A., Chan, S. H., Lipman, T., & Santarelli, M.. A Direct Manufacturing Cost Model for Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks. Germany. doi:10.1002/fuce.201700012.
Scataglini, R., Wei, M., Mayyas, A., Chan, S. H., Lipman, T., and Santarelli, M.. 2017. "A Direct Manufacturing Cost Model for Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks". Germany. doi:10.1002/fuce.201700012.
title = {A Direct Manufacturing Cost Model for Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks},
author = {Scataglini, R. and Wei, M. and Mayyas, A. and Chan, S. H. and Lipman, T. and Santarelli, M.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1002/fuce.201700012},
journal = {Fuel Cells},
number = 6,
volume = 17,
place = {Germany},
year = 2017,
month =

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on November 21, 2018
Publisher's Accepted Manuscript

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  • The successful commercialization of fuel cells will depend on the achievement of competitive system costs and efficiencies. System cost directly impacts the capital equipment component of cost of electricity (COE) and is a major contributor to the O and M component. The replacement costs for equipment (also heavily influenced by stack life) is generally a major contributor to O and M costs. In this project, they worked with the SECA industrial teams to estimate the impact of general manufacturing issues of interest on stack cost using an activities-based cost model for anode-supported planar SOFC stacks with metallic interconnects. An earliermore » model developed for NETL for anode supported planar SOFCs was enhanced by a linkage to a performance/thermal/mechanical model, by addition of Quality Control steps to the process flow with specific characterization methods, and by assessment of economies of scale. The 3-dimensional adiabatic performance model was used to calculate the average power density for the assumed geometry and operating conditions (i.e., inlet and exhaust temperatures, utilization, and fuel composition) based on publicly available polarizations curves. The SECA team provided guidance on what manufacturing and design issues should be assessed in this Phase I demonstration of cost modeling capabilities. They considered the impact of the following parameters on yield and cost: layer thickness (i.e., anode, electrolyte, and cathode) on cost and stress levels, statistical nature of ceramic material failure on yield, and Quality Control steps and strategies. In this demonstration of the capabilities of the linked model, only the active stack (i.e., anode, electrolyte, and cathode) and interconnect materials were included in the analysis. Factory costs are presented on an area and kilowatt basis to allow developers to extrapolate to their level of performance, stack design, materials, seal and system configurations, and internal corporate overheads and margin goals.« less
  • A probabilistic-based component design methodology is developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack. This method takes into account the randomness in SOFC material properties as well as the stresses arising from different manufacturing and operating conditions. The purpose of this work is to provide the SOFC designers a design methodology such that desired level of component reliability can be achieved with deterministic design functions using an equivalent safety factor to account for the uncertainties in material properties and structural stresses. Multi-physics-based finite element analyses were used to predict the electrochemical and thermal mechanical responses of SOFC stacks with differentmore » geometric variations and under different operating conditions. Failures in the anode and the seal were used as design examples. The predicted maximum principal stresses in the anode and the seal were compared with the experimentally determined strength characteristics for the anode and the seal respectively. Component failure probabilities for the current design were then calculated under different operating conditions. It was found that anode failure probability is very low under all conditions examined. The seal failure probability is relatively high, particularly for high fuel utilization rate under low average cell temperature. Next, the procedures for calculating the equivalent safety factors for anode and seal were demonstrated such that uniform failure probability of the anode and seal can be achieved. Analysis procedures were also included for non-normal distributed random variables such that more realistic distributions of strength and stress can be analyzed using the proposed design methodology.« less
  • This paper examines the electrochemical and on-cell steam-methane reforming performance of the solid oxide fuel cell when subjected to pressurization. Pressurized operation boosts the Nernst potential and decreases the activation polarization, both of which serve to increase cell voltage and power while lowering the heat load and operating temperature. A model considering the activation polarization in both the fuel and air electrodes was adopted to address this effect on the electrochemical performance. Both the increase in methane conversion kinetics and the increase in equilibrium methane concentration, which are competing effects of pressurization on steam-methane reforming, are considered in a newmore » rate expression. The models were then applied in simulations to preview how the distributions of reforming rate, temperature, and current density can potentially be changed within stacks operating at elevated pressure. A generic 10 cm counter-flow stack model was created and used for the simulations of pressurized operation. The predictions showed improved thermal and electrical performance with increased operating pressure. The average and maximum cell temperatures decreased by 3% while the cell voltage increased by 9% as the operating pressure was increased from 1 to 10 atmospheres.« less
  • High-temperature ferritic alloys are potential candidates as interconnect (IC) materials and spacers due to their low cost and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) compatibility with other components for most of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) . However, creep deformation becomes relevant for a material when the operating temperature exceeds or even is less than half of its melting temperature (in degrees of Kelvin). The operating temperatures for most of the SOFCs under development are around 1,073 K. With around 1,800 K of the melting temperature for most stainless steel, possible creep deformation of ferritic IC under the typical cellmore » operating temperature should not be neglected. In this paper, the effects of IC creep behavior on stack geometry change and the stress redistribution of different cell components are predicted and summarized. The goal of the study is to investigate the performance of the fuel cell stack by obtaining the changes in fuel- and air-channel geometry due to creep of the ferritic stainless steel IC, therefore indicating possible changes in SOFC performance under long-term operations. The ferritic IC creep model was incorporated into software SOFC-MP and Mentat-FC, and finite element analyses were performed to quantify the deformed configuration of the SOFC stack under the long-term steady-state operating temperature. It was found that the creep behavior of the ferritic stainless steel IC contributes to narrowing of both the fuel- and the air-flow channels. In addition, stress re-distribution of the cell components suggests the need for a compliant sealing material that also relaxes at operating temperature.« less