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Title: Introduction to Seismic Tomography

Abstract

Tomography is a method of obtaining an image of a 3d object by observing the behavior of energy transmissions through the object. The image is obtained by Interrogating the object with Energy sources at a variety of Locations and observing the Object’s effects on the energy at a Variety of sensors. Tomography was first Used to build 3-dimensional Scans through Human bodies. These Are called computed Tomographic (ct) scans.

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1409811
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-30672
DOE Contract Number:
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; Earth Sciences; introductory tomography, seismic velocity modeling

Citation Formats

Rowe, Charlotte Anne. Introduction to Seismic Tomography. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1409811.
Rowe, Charlotte Anne. Introduction to Seismic Tomography. United States. doi:10.2172/1409811.
Rowe, Charlotte Anne. 2017. "Introduction to Seismic Tomography". United States. doi:10.2172/1409811. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1409811.
@article{osti_1409811,
title = {Introduction to Seismic Tomography},
author = {Rowe, Charlotte Anne},
abstractNote = {Tomography is a method of obtaining an image of a 3d object by observing the behavior of energy transmissions through the object. The image is obtained by Interrogating the object with Energy sources at a variety of Locations and observing the Object’s effects on the energy at a Variety of sensors. Tomography was first Used to build 3-dimensional Scans through Human bodies. These Are called computed Tomographic (ct) scans.},
doi = {10.2172/1409811},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month =
}

Technical Report:

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  • The main topic of these lectures is seismic traveltime inversion in 2- and 3-dimensional heterogeneous media. A typical problem is to infer the (isotropic) compressional-wave slowness (reciprocal of velocity) distribution of a medium, given a set of observed first-arrival traveltime between sources and receivers of known location within the medium. This problem is common for crosshole seismic transmission tomography imaging a 2-D region between vertical boreholes in oil field applications. We also consider the problem of inverting for wave slowness when the absolute traveltimes are not known, as is normally the case in earthquake seismology.
  • Accurate tomographic reconstructions of sound wave speed and attenuation are more difficult to obtain than are the corresponding reconstructions for x-rays or high frequency electromagnetic probes. The source of the difficulty is the common occurrence of large contrasts in acoustic or seismic wave speeds, leading to refraction and ray-bending effects. A new algorithm based on Fermat's principle has been developed to treat these problems. A description of the code STOMP (for Seismic TOMography Program) implementing the new algorithm is presented here together with a brief users manual for applications to borehole-to-borehole tomography. 3 refs., 3 figs.
  • The main topic of these lectures is seismic traveltime inversion in 2- and 3-dimensional heterogeneous media. A typical problem is to infer the (isotropic) compressional-wave slowness (reciprocal of velocity) distribution of a medium, given a set of observed first-arrival traveltime between sources and receivers of known location within the medium. This problem is common for crosshole seismic transmission tomography imaging a 2-D region between vertical boreholes in oil field applications. We also consider the problem of inverting for wave slowness when the absolute traveltimes are not known, as is normally the case in earthquake seismology.
  • This report summarizes the state of the art in the application of medical tomography (CT) to petroleum recovery problems. A brief review of the basic principles of x-ray computerized tomography is followed by a discussion of the governing equations of the method. Calculation techniques and appropriate correlations for continued testing are described and discussed. A review of existing medical software is done. Consideration of the specific software needed for petroleum engineering as well as applications of new technologies such as image processing and computer networking are described. Criteria for the choice of a machine suitable for most petroleum-related applications aremore » given. Emphasis is placed on flexibility, reliability, accuracy and price of the scanner. Two separate sections discuss positioning of the core and design of the core holders. Examples of possible applications of CT scanning to problems of geology, core analysis, EOR as well as operational process problems are discussed. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.« less
  • This paper examines the fundamental problem areas and the available solutions in seismic signal processing. Topics considered include seismic signal modeling, spectral matching and the ARMA model, parameter estimation, homomorphic versus predictive deconvolution, Kalman filtering, and the measurement of the first arrival time. (Author)