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Title: Multi-static Serial LiDAR for Surveillance and Identification of Marine Life at MHK Installations

Abstract

Final Report for project DE-EE0006787: Multi-static Serial LiDAR for Surveillance and Identification of Marine Life at MHK Installations. This project developed and tested an optical monitoring system prototype that will be suitable for marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) full project lifecycle observation (baseline, commissioning, and decommissioning), with automated real-time classification of marine animals. This system can be deployed to collect pre-installation baseline species observations at a proposed deployment site with minimal post-processing overhead. To satisfy deployed MHK project species of concern (e.g. Endangered Species Act-listed) monitoring requirements, the system provides automated tracking and notification of the presence of managed animals within established perimeters of MHK equipment and provides high resolution imagery of their behavior through a wide range of conditions. During a project’s decommissioning stage, the system can remain installed to provide resource managers with post-installation data. Our technology, known as an Unobtrusive Multi-static Serial LiDAR Imager (UMSLI), is a technology transfer of underwater distributed LiDAR imaging technology that preserves the advantages of traditional optical and acoustic solutions while overcoming associated disadvantages for MHK environmental monitoring applications. This new approach is a purposefully-designed, reconfigurable adaptation of an existing technology that can be easily mounted on or around different classes of MHKmore » equipment. The system uses low average power red (638nm) laser illumination to be invisible and eye-safe to marine animals and is compact and cost effective. The equipment is designed for long term, maintenance-free operations, to inherently generate a sparse primary dataset that only includes detected anomalies (animal presence information), and to allow robust real-time automated animal classification/identification with a low data bandwidth requirement. Advantages of the technology over others currently being used or being considered for MHK monitoring include: Unlike a conventional camera, the depth of field is near-infinite and limited by attenuation (approximately 5-8 m) rather than focal properties of a lens; Operation in an adaptive mode which can project a sparse grid of pulses with higher peak power for longer range detection (>10 meters) and track animals within a zone of interest with high resolution imagery for identification of marine life at closer range (<5m); System detection limit and Signal-to-Noise-Ratio is superior to a camera, due to rejection of both backscattering component and ambient solar background; Multiple wide-angle pulsed laser illuminators and bucket detectors can be flexibly configured to cover a 4pi steradian (i.e. omnidirectional) scene volume, while also retrieving 3D features of animal targets from timing information; Process and classification framework centered around a novel active learning and incremental classification classifier that enables accurate identification of a variety of marine animals automatically; A two-tiered monitoring architecture and invisible watermarking-based data archiving and retrieving approach ensures significant data reduction while preserving high fidelity monitoring. A methodology to train and optimize the classifier for target species of concern to optimize site monitoring effectiveness. This technological innovation addresses a high priority regulatory requirement to observe marine life interaction near MHK projects. Our solution improves resource manager confidence that any interactions between marine animals and equipment are observed in a cost-effective and automated manner. Without EERE funding, this novel application of multi-static LiDAR would not have been available to the MHK community for environmental monitoring.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Water Power Technologies Office (EE-4WP)
OSTI Identifier:
1409678
Report Number(s):
DOE-FAU-06787
DOE Contract Number:
EE0006787
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Related Information: OSTI ID: 1373095
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
16 TIDAL AND WAVE POWER; LiDAR; marine; monitoring; classification; MHK; UMSLI; WPTO: EERE; wave; tidal; fish classification; unobtrusive

Citation Formats

Alsenas, Gabriel, Dalgleish, Fraser, and Ouyang, Bing. Multi-static Serial LiDAR for Surveillance and Identification of Marine Life at MHK Installations. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1409678.
Alsenas, Gabriel, Dalgleish, Fraser, & Ouyang, Bing. Multi-static Serial LiDAR for Surveillance and Identification of Marine Life at MHK Installations. United States. doi:10.2172/1409678.
Alsenas, Gabriel, Dalgleish, Fraser, and Ouyang, Bing. Fri . "Multi-static Serial LiDAR for Surveillance and Identification of Marine Life at MHK Installations". United States. doi:10.2172/1409678. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1409678.
@article{osti_1409678,
title = {Multi-static Serial LiDAR for Surveillance and Identification of Marine Life at MHK Installations},
author = {Alsenas, Gabriel and Dalgleish, Fraser and Ouyang, Bing},
abstractNote = {Final Report for project DE-EE0006787: Multi-static Serial LiDAR for Surveillance and Identification of Marine Life at MHK Installations. This project developed and tested an optical monitoring system prototype that will be suitable for marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) full project lifecycle observation (baseline, commissioning, and decommissioning), with automated real-time classification of marine animals. This system can be deployed to collect pre-installation baseline species observations at a proposed deployment site with minimal post-processing overhead. To satisfy deployed MHK project species of concern (e.g. Endangered Species Act-listed) monitoring requirements, the system provides automated tracking and notification of the presence of managed animals within established perimeters of MHK equipment and provides high resolution imagery of their behavior through a wide range of conditions. During a project’s decommissioning stage, the system can remain installed to provide resource managers with post-installation data. Our technology, known as an Unobtrusive Multi-static Serial LiDAR Imager (UMSLI), is a technology transfer of underwater distributed LiDAR imaging technology that preserves the advantages of traditional optical and acoustic solutions while overcoming associated disadvantages for MHK environmental monitoring applications. This new approach is a purposefully-designed, reconfigurable adaptation of an existing technology that can be easily mounted on or around different classes of MHK equipment. The system uses low average power red (638nm) laser illumination to be invisible and eye-safe to marine animals and is compact and cost effective. The equipment is designed for long term, maintenance-free operations, to inherently generate a sparse primary dataset that only includes detected anomalies (animal presence information), and to allow robust real-time automated animal classification/identification with a low data bandwidth requirement. Advantages of the technology over others currently being used or being considered for MHK monitoring include: Unlike a conventional camera, the depth of field is near-infinite and limited by attenuation (approximately 5-8 m) rather than focal properties of a lens; Operation in an adaptive mode which can project a sparse grid of pulses with higher peak power for longer range detection (>10 meters) and track animals within a zone of interest with high resolution imagery for identification of marine life at closer range (<5m); System detection limit and Signal-to-Noise-Ratio is superior to a camera, due to rejection of both backscattering component and ambient solar background; Multiple wide-angle pulsed laser illuminators and bucket detectors can be flexibly configured to cover a 4pi steradian (i.e. omnidirectional) scene volume, while also retrieving 3D features of animal targets from timing information; Process and classification framework centered around a novel active learning and incremental classification classifier that enables accurate identification of a variety of marine animals automatically; A two-tiered monitoring architecture and invisible watermarking-based data archiving and retrieving approach ensures significant data reduction while preserving high fidelity monitoring. A methodology to train and optimize the classifier for target species of concern to optimize site monitoring effectiveness. This technological innovation addresses a high priority regulatory requirement to observe marine life interaction near MHK projects. Our solution improves resource manager confidence that any interactions between marine animals and equipment are observed in a cost-effective and automated manner. Without EERE funding, this novel application of multi-static LiDAR would not have been available to the MHK community for environmental monitoring.},
doi = {10.2172/1409678},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jun 30 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Fri Jun 30 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Technical Report:

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  • A multi-static serial LiDAR system prototype was developed under DE-EE0006787 to detect, classify, and record interactions of marine life with marine hydrokinetic generation equipment. This software implements a shape-matching based classifier algorithm for the underwater automated detection of marine life for that system. In addition to applying shape descriptors, the algorithm also adopts information theoretical learning based affine shape registration, improving point correspondences found by shape descriptors as well as the final similarity measure.
  • Polycrstalline diamond (PCD) bearings were designed, fabricated and tested for marine-hydro-kinetic (MHK) application. Bearing efficiency and life were evaluated using the US Synthetic bearing test facility. Three iterations of design, build and test were conducted to arrive at the best bearing design. In addition life testing that simulated the starting and stopping and the loading of real MHK applications were performed. Results showed polycrystalline diamond bearings are well suited for MHK applications and that diamond bearing technology is TRL4 ready. Based on life tests results bearing life is estimated to be at least 11.5 years. A calculation method for evaluatingmore » the performance of diamond bearings of round geometry was also investigated and developed. Finally, as part of this effort test bearings were supplied free of charge to the University of Alaska for further evaluation. The University of Alaska test program will subject the diamond bearings to sediment laden lubricating fluid.« less
  • The Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology (MHK) Instrumentation, Measurement, and Computer Modeling Workshop was hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Broomfield, Colorado, July 9-10, 2012. The workshop brought together over 60 experts in marine energy technologies to disseminate technical information to the marine energy community and collect information to help identify ways in which the development of a commercially viable marine energy industry can be accelerated. The workshop was comprised of plenary sessions that reviewed the state of the marine energy industry and technical sessions that covered specific topics of relevance. Each session consisted of presentations, followed bymore » facilitated discussions. During the facilitated discussions, the session chairs posed several prepared questions to the presenters and audience to encourage communication and the exchange of ideas between technical experts. Following the workshop, attendees were asked to provide written feedback on their takeaways and their best ideas on how to accelerate the pace of marine energy technology development. The first four sections of this document give a general overview of the workshop format, provide presentation abstracts and discussion session notes, and list responses to the post-workshop questions. The final section presents key findings and conclusions from the workshop that suggest how the U.S. Department of Energy and national laboratory resources can be utilized to most effectively assist the marine energy industry.« less
  • The Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology (MHK) Instrumentation, Measurement, and Computer Modeling Workshop was hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Broomfield, Colorado, July 9–10, 2012. The workshop brought together over 60 experts in marine energy technologies to disseminate technical information to the marine energy community, and to collect information to help identify ways in which the development of a commercially viable marine energy industry can be accelerated. The workshop was comprised of plenary sessions that reviewed the state of the marine energy industry and technical sessions that covered specific topics of relevance. Each session consisted of presentations, followedmore » by facilitated discussions. During the facilitated discussions, the session chairs posed several prepared questions to the presenters and audience to encourage communication and the exchange of ideas between technical experts. Following the workshop, attendees were asked to provide written feedback on their takeaways from the workshop and their best ideas on how to accelerate the pace of marine energy technology development. The first four sections of this document give a general overview of the workshop format, provide presentation abstracts, supply discussion session notes, and list responses to the post-workshop questions. The final section presents key findings and conclusions from the workshop that suggest what the most pressing MHK technology needs are and how the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources can be utilized to assist the marine energy industry in the most effective manner.« less
  • Optical systems provide valuable information for evaluating interactions and associations between organisms and MHK energy converters and for capturing potentially rare encounters between marine organisms and MHK device. The deluge of optical data from cabled monitoring packages makes expert review time-consuming and expensive. We propose algorithms and a processing framework to automatically extract events of interest from underwater video. The open-source software framework consists of background subtraction, filtering, feature extraction and hierarchical classification algorithms. This principle classification pipeline was validated on real-world data collected with an experimental underwater monitoring package. An event detection rate of 100% was achieved using robustmore » principal components analysis (RPCA), Fourier feature extraction and a support vector machine (SVM) binary classifier. The detected events were then further classified into more complex classes – algae | invertebrate | vertebrate, one species | multiple species of fish, and interest rank. Greater than 80% accuracy was achieved using a combination of machine learning techniques.« less