skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Eye patches: Protein assembly of index-gradient squid lenses

Abstract

A parabolic relationship between lens radius and refractive index allows spherical lenses to avoid spherical aberration. We show that in squid, patchy colloidal physics resulted from an evolutionary radiation of globular S-crystallin proteins. Small-angle x-ray scattering experiments on lens tissue show colloidal gels of S-crystallins at all radial positions. Sparse lens materials form via low-valence linkages between disordered loops protruding from the protein surface. The loops are polydisperse and bind via a set of hydrogen bonds between disordered side chains. Peripheral lens regions with low particle valence form stable, volume-spanning gels at low density, whereas central regions with higher average valence gel at higher densities. The proteins demonstrate an evolved set of linkers for self-assembly of nanoparticles into volumetric materials.

Authors:
ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ORCiD logo
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1409547
Report Number(s):
BNL-114599-2017-JA¿¿¿
Journal ID: ISSN 0036-8075
DOE Contract Number:
SC0012704
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Science; Journal Volume: 357; Journal Issue: 6351
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Cai, J., Townsend, J. P., Dodson, T. C., Heiney, P. A., and Sweeney, A. M.. Eye patches: Protein assembly of index-gradient squid lenses. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1126/science.aal2674.
Cai, J., Townsend, J. P., Dodson, T. C., Heiney, P. A., & Sweeney, A. M.. Eye patches: Protein assembly of index-gradient squid lenses. United States. doi:10.1126/science.aal2674.
Cai, J., Townsend, J. P., Dodson, T. C., Heiney, P. A., and Sweeney, A. M.. 2017. "Eye patches: Protein assembly of index-gradient squid lenses". United States. doi:10.1126/science.aal2674.
@article{osti_1409547,
title = {Eye patches: Protein assembly of index-gradient squid lenses},
author = {Cai, J. and Townsend, J. P. and Dodson, T. C. and Heiney, P. A. and Sweeney, A. M.},
abstractNote = {A parabolic relationship between lens radius and refractive index allows spherical lenses to avoid spherical aberration. We show that in squid, patchy colloidal physics resulted from an evolutionary radiation of globular S-crystallin proteins. Small-angle x-ray scattering experiments on lens tissue show colloidal gels of S-crystallins at all radial positions. Sparse lens materials form via low-valence linkages between disordered loops protruding from the protein surface. The loops are polydisperse and bind via a set of hydrogen bonds between disordered side chains. Peripheral lens regions with low particle valence form stable, volume-spanning gels at low density, whereas central regions with higher average valence gel at higher densities. The proteins demonstrate an evolved set of linkers for self-assembly of nanoparticles into volumetric materials.},
doi = {10.1126/science.aal2674},
journal = {Science},
number = 6351,
volume = 357,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 8
}
  • A possibility of developing graded-index lenses with a two-dimensional refractive index is considered. The problem of convective diffusion in a gravitational field is solved with this purpose in mind, and then optical characteristics of a lens calculated in this way are considered. 17 refs., 4 figs.
  • Resolution of the lenses made of a negative-index material is considered. It is shown that the super-resolution concept is untenable and the possibility of obtaining a perfect image on its own eventually contradicts Maxwell's equations in vacuum. It is also shown that known limitations of the diffraction theory on resolution of optical instruments hold true for the resolution of lenses of a negative-index material, in particular, the resolution of a Veselago lens. (nanogradient dielectric coatings and metamaterials)
  • A graphical method is described by means of which it is possible to design quadrupole lenses once locations of object and image are given. It is shown that similar procedures would be valid in the para-axial (Gauss) approximation, when applied to electron optical devices of any kind. (auth)
  • The emigration of newly produced lymphocytes from Peyer's patches (PP) of lambs was studied. Mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were excised from most animals a few weeks after birth, and then at 8 to 10 wk of age, the dividing cells in 3 to 4 m of the small intestine were labeled in situ with (/sup 3/H)thymidine. As extracorporeal perfusion system was used to restrict the 15-min period of labeling to the perfused lengths of intestine, which included either the large continuous ileal PP or a number of smaller jejunal PP. One or 3 days later, the number of labeled cellsmore » in the perfused tissue and in other lymphoid organs was studied by autoradiography. In the perfused tissues, labeled lymphocytes accounted for 63.7% of ileal PP cells by 1 day and for 86.7% by 3 days compared with only 9.6% of lymphocytes in the perfused MLN. labeled lymphoid cells in the perfused PP were nearly all in the follicles. Labeled lymphocytes that must have been produced in the segments of ileum or jejunum at the time of the perfusion, subsequently emigrated via the lymphatics, and were identified in the spleen, MLN, other lymph nodes, blood, jejunal PP, and at a lower frequency in the thymus, nonperfused ileal PP, and bone marrow. It was estimated that at both 1 and 3 days after perfusion there were about 100 times more labeled cells in the perfused ileal PP than could be accounted for by emigration to other organs. It was concluded that these results provide additional support for the view that PP in lambs produce a tremendous number of lymphocytes, but relatively few leave their site of production; most apparently die in situ.« less