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Title: Response of Water Use Efficiency to Global Environmental Change Based on Output From Terrestrial Biosphere Models

Abstract

Here, water use efficiency (WUE), defined as the ratio of gross primary productivity and evapotranspiration at the ecosystem scale, is a critical variable linking the carbon and water cycles. Incorporating a dependency on vapor pressure deficit, apparent underlying WUE (uWUE) provides a better indicator of how terrestrial ecosystems respond to environmental changes than other WUE formulations. Here we used 20th century simulations from four terrestrial biosphere models to develop a novel variance decomposition method. With this method, we attributed variations in apparent uWUE to both the trend and interannual variation of environmental drivers. The secular increase in atmospheric CO 2 explained a clear majority of total variation (66 ± 32%: mean ± one standard deviation), followed by positive trends in nitrogen deposition and climate, as well as a negative trend in land use change. In contrast, interannual variation was mostly driven by interannual climate variability. To analyze the mechanism of the CO 2 effect, we partitioned the apparent uWUE into the transpiration ratio (transpiration over evapotranspiration) and potential uWUE. The relative increase in potential uWUE parallels that of CO 2, but this direct CO 2 effect was offset by 20 ± 4% by changes in ecosystem structure, that is, leafmore » area index for different vegetation types. However, the decrease in transpiration due to stomatal closure with rising CO 2 was reduced by 84% by an increase in leaf area index, resulting in small changes in the transpiration ratio. CO 2 concentration thus plays a dominant role in driving apparent uWUE variations over time, but its role differs for the two constituent components: potential uWUE and transpiration.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [6];  [7]; ORCiD logo [8]; ORCiD logo [9]; ORCiD logo [10]; ORCiD logo [11]; ORCiD logo [12]; ORCiD logo [13]; ORCiD logo [12]; ORCiD logo [12]; ORCiD logo [14]; ORCiD logo [12];  [15];  [1]
  1. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)
  2. Griffith Univ., Nathan Queensland (Australia)
  3. Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth, MA (United States); Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)
  4. Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
  5. Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)
  6. California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)
  7. Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA (United States)
  8. California State Uni., Monterey Bay, Seasid, CA (United States)
  9. Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)
  10. Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)
  11. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China)
  12. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  13. Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)
  14. Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)
  15. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Qinghai Univ., Xining (China)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1409248
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Global Biogeochemical Cycles; Journal Volume: 31; Journal Issue: N/A
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Zhou, Sha, Yu, Bofu, Schwalm, Christopher R., Ciais, Philippe, Zhang, Yao, Fisher, Joshua B., Michalak, Anna M., Wang, Weile, Poulter, Benjamin, Huntzinger, Deborah N., Niu, Shuli, Mao, Jiafu, Jain, Atul, Ricciuto, Daniel M., Shi, Xiaoying, Ito, Akihiko, Wei, Yaxing, Huang, Yuefei, and Wang, Guangqian. Response of Water Use Efficiency to Global Environmental Change Based on Output From Terrestrial Biosphere Models. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/2017GB005733.
Zhou, Sha, Yu, Bofu, Schwalm, Christopher R., Ciais, Philippe, Zhang, Yao, Fisher, Joshua B., Michalak, Anna M., Wang, Weile, Poulter, Benjamin, Huntzinger, Deborah N., Niu, Shuli, Mao, Jiafu, Jain, Atul, Ricciuto, Daniel M., Shi, Xiaoying, Ito, Akihiko, Wei, Yaxing, Huang, Yuefei, & Wang, Guangqian. Response of Water Use Efficiency to Global Environmental Change Based on Output From Terrestrial Biosphere Models. United States. doi:10.1002/2017GB005733.
Zhou, Sha, Yu, Bofu, Schwalm, Christopher R., Ciais, Philippe, Zhang, Yao, Fisher, Joshua B., Michalak, Anna M., Wang, Weile, Poulter, Benjamin, Huntzinger, Deborah N., Niu, Shuli, Mao, Jiafu, Jain, Atul, Ricciuto, Daniel M., Shi, Xiaoying, Ito, Akihiko, Wei, Yaxing, Huang, Yuefei, and Wang, Guangqian. Wed . "Response of Water Use Efficiency to Global Environmental Change Based on Output From Terrestrial Biosphere Models". United States. doi:10.1002/2017GB005733.
@article{osti_1409248,
title = {Response of Water Use Efficiency to Global Environmental Change Based on Output From Terrestrial Biosphere Models},
author = {Zhou, Sha and Yu, Bofu and Schwalm, Christopher R. and Ciais, Philippe and Zhang, Yao and Fisher, Joshua B. and Michalak, Anna M. and Wang, Weile and Poulter, Benjamin and Huntzinger, Deborah N. and Niu, Shuli and Mao, Jiafu and Jain, Atul and Ricciuto, Daniel M. and Shi, Xiaoying and Ito, Akihiko and Wei, Yaxing and Huang, Yuefei and Wang, Guangqian},
abstractNote = {Here, water use efficiency (WUE), defined as the ratio of gross primary productivity and evapotranspiration at the ecosystem scale, is a critical variable linking the carbon and water cycles. Incorporating a dependency on vapor pressure deficit, apparent underlying WUE (uWUE) provides a better indicator of how terrestrial ecosystems respond to environmental changes than other WUE formulations. Here we used 20th century simulations from four terrestrial biosphere models to develop a novel variance decomposition method. With this method, we attributed variations in apparent uWUE to both the trend and interannual variation of environmental drivers. The secular increase in atmospheric CO2 explained a clear majority of total variation (66 ± 32%: mean ± one standard deviation), followed by positive trends in nitrogen deposition and climate, as well as a negative trend in land use change. In contrast, interannual variation was mostly driven by interannual climate variability. To analyze the mechanism of the CO2 effect, we partitioned the apparent uWUE into the transpiration ratio (transpiration over evapotranspiration) and potential uWUE. The relative increase in potential uWUE parallels that of CO2, but this direct CO2 effect was offset by 20 ± 4% by changes in ecosystem structure, that is, leaf area index for different vegetation types. However, the decrease in transpiration due to stomatal closure with rising CO2 was reduced by 84% by an increase in leaf area index, resulting in small changes in the transpiration ratio. CO2 concentration thus plays a dominant role in driving apparent uWUE variations over time, but its role differs for the two constituent components: potential uWUE and transpiration.},
doi = {10.1002/2017GB005733},
journal = {Global Biogeochemical Cycles},
number = N/A,
volume = 31,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Oct 18 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Wed Oct 18 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}