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Title: Response of Water Use Efficiency to Global Environmental Change Based on Output From Terrestrial Biosphere Models

Abstract

Here, water use efficiency (WUE), defined as the ratio of gross primary productivity and evapotranspiration at the ecosystem scale, is a critical variable linking the carbon and water cycles. Incorporating a dependency on vapor pressure deficit, apparent underlying WUE (uWUE) provides a better indicator of how terrestrial ecosystems respond to environmental changes than other WUE formulations. Here we used 20th century simulations from four terrestrial biosphere models to develop a novel variance decomposition method. With this method, we attributed variations in apparent uWUE to both the trend and interannual variation of environmental drivers. The secular increase in atmospheric CO 2 explained a clear majority of total variation (66 ± 32%: mean ± one standard deviation), followed by positive trends in nitrogen deposition and climate, as well as a negative trend in land use change. In contrast, interannual variation was mostly driven by interannual climate variability. To analyze the mechanism of the CO 2 effect, we partitioned the apparent uWUE into the transpiration ratio (transpiration over evapotranspiration) and potential uWUE. The relative increase in potential uWUE parallels that of CO 2, but this direct CO 2 effect was offset by 20 ± 4% by changes in ecosystem structure, that is, leafmore » area index for different vegetation types. However, the decrease in transpiration due to stomatal closure with rising CO 2 was reduced by 84% by an increase in leaf area index, resulting in small changes in the transpiration ratio. CO 2 concentration thus plays a dominant role in driving apparent uWUE variations over time, but its role differs for the two constituent components: potential uWUE and transpiration.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [6];  [7]; ORCiD logo [8]; ORCiD logo [9]; ORCiD logo [10]; ORCiD logo [11]; ORCiD logo [12]; ORCiD logo [13]; ORCiD logo [12]; ORCiD logo [12]; ORCiD logo [14]; ORCiD logo [12];  [15];  [1]
  1. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)
  2. Griffith Univ., Nathan Queensland (Australia)
  3. Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth, MA (United States); Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)
  4. Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
  5. Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)
  6. California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)
  7. Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA (United States)
  8. California State Uni., Monterey Bay, Seasid, CA (United States)
  9. Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)
  10. Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)
  11. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China)
  12. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  13. Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)
  14. Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)
  15. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Qinghai Univ., Xining (China)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1409248
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Global Biogeochemical Cycles
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 31; Journal Issue: N/A; Journal ID: ISSN 0886-6236
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union (AGU)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Zhou, Sha, Yu, Bofu, Schwalm, Christopher R., Ciais, Philippe, Zhang, Yao, Fisher, Joshua B., Michalak, Anna M., Wang, Weile, Poulter, Benjamin, Huntzinger, Deborah N., Niu, Shuli, Mao, Jiafu, Jain, Atul, Ricciuto, Daniel M., Shi, Xiaoying, Ito, Akihiko, Wei, Yaxing, Huang, Yuefei, and Wang, Guangqian. Response of Water Use Efficiency to Global Environmental Change Based on Output From Terrestrial Biosphere Models. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/2017GB005733.
Zhou, Sha, Yu, Bofu, Schwalm, Christopher R., Ciais, Philippe, Zhang, Yao, Fisher, Joshua B., Michalak, Anna M., Wang, Weile, Poulter, Benjamin, Huntzinger, Deborah N., Niu, Shuli, Mao, Jiafu, Jain, Atul, Ricciuto, Daniel M., Shi, Xiaoying, Ito, Akihiko, Wei, Yaxing, Huang, Yuefei, & Wang, Guangqian. Response of Water Use Efficiency to Global Environmental Change Based on Output From Terrestrial Biosphere Models. United States. doi:10.1002/2017GB005733.
Zhou, Sha, Yu, Bofu, Schwalm, Christopher R., Ciais, Philippe, Zhang, Yao, Fisher, Joshua B., Michalak, Anna M., Wang, Weile, Poulter, Benjamin, Huntzinger, Deborah N., Niu, Shuli, Mao, Jiafu, Jain, Atul, Ricciuto, Daniel M., Shi, Xiaoying, Ito, Akihiko, Wei, Yaxing, Huang, Yuefei, and Wang, Guangqian. Wed . "Response of Water Use Efficiency to Global Environmental Change Based on Output From Terrestrial Biosphere Models". United States. doi:10.1002/2017GB005733.
@article{osti_1409248,
title = {Response of Water Use Efficiency to Global Environmental Change Based on Output From Terrestrial Biosphere Models},
author = {Zhou, Sha and Yu, Bofu and Schwalm, Christopher R. and Ciais, Philippe and Zhang, Yao and Fisher, Joshua B. and Michalak, Anna M. and Wang, Weile and Poulter, Benjamin and Huntzinger, Deborah N. and Niu, Shuli and Mao, Jiafu and Jain, Atul and Ricciuto, Daniel M. and Shi, Xiaoying and Ito, Akihiko and Wei, Yaxing and Huang, Yuefei and Wang, Guangqian},
abstractNote = {Here, water use efficiency (WUE), defined as the ratio of gross primary productivity and evapotranspiration at the ecosystem scale, is a critical variable linking the carbon and water cycles. Incorporating a dependency on vapor pressure deficit, apparent underlying WUE (uWUE) provides a better indicator of how terrestrial ecosystems respond to environmental changes than other WUE formulations. Here we used 20th century simulations from four terrestrial biosphere models to develop a novel variance decomposition method. With this method, we attributed variations in apparent uWUE to both the trend and interannual variation of environmental drivers. The secular increase in atmospheric CO2 explained a clear majority of total variation (66 ± 32%: mean ± one standard deviation), followed by positive trends in nitrogen deposition and climate, as well as a negative trend in land use change. In contrast, interannual variation was mostly driven by interannual climate variability. To analyze the mechanism of the CO2 effect, we partitioned the apparent uWUE into the transpiration ratio (transpiration over evapotranspiration) and potential uWUE. The relative increase in potential uWUE parallels that of CO2, but this direct CO2 effect was offset by 20 ± 4% by changes in ecosystem structure, that is, leaf area index for different vegetation types. However, the decrease in transpiration due to stomatal closure with rising CO2 was reduced by 84% by an increase in leaf area index, resulting in small changes in the transpiration ratio. CO2 concentration thus plays a dominant role in driving apparent uWUE variations over time, but its role differs for the two constituent components: potential uWUE and transpiration.},
doi = {10.1002/2017GB005733},
journal = {Global Biogeochemical Cycles},
issn = {0886-6236},
number = N/A,
volume = 31,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Increase in forest water-use efficiency as atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise
    journal, July 2013

    • Keenan, Trevor F.; Hollinger, David Y.; Bohrer, Gil
    • Nature, Vol. 499, Issue 7458
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature12291

    Enhanced nitrogen deposition over China
    journal, February 2013


    The North American Carbon Program Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project – Part 2: Environmental driver data
    journal, January 2014

    • Wei, Y.; Liu, S.; Huntzinger, D. N.
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 7, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-7-2875-2014

    Greening of the Earth and its drivers
    journal, April 2016

    • Zhu, Zaichun; Piao, Shilong; Myneni, Ranga B.
    • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 6, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate3004

    Effect of nitrogen deposition on China's terrestrial carbon uptake in the context of multifactor environmental changes
    journal, January 2012

    • Lu, Chaoqun; Tian, Hanqin; Liu, Mingliang
    • Ecological Applications, Vol. 22, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1890/10-1685.1

    Land use change and nitrogen feedbacks constrain the trajectory of the land carbon sink
    journal, October 2013

    • Gerber, Stefan; Hedin, Lars O.; Keel, Sonja G.
    • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, Issue 19
    • DOI: 10.1002/grl.50957

    Increased water-use efficiency does not lead to enhanced tree growth under xeric and mesic conditions
    journal, March 2014

    • Lévesque, Mathieu; Siegwolf, Rolf; Saurer, Matthias
    • New Phytologist, Vol. 203, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1111/nph.12772

    The HYDE 3.1 spatially explicit database of human-induced global land-use change over the past 12,000 years: HYDE 3.1 Holocene land use
    journal, September 2010


    Exploiting synergies of global land cover products for carbon cycle modeling
    journal, April 2006

    • Jung, Martin; Henkel, Kathrin; Herold, Martin
    • Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 101, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2006.01.020

    Contrasting physiological and structural vegetation feedbacks in climate change simulations
    journal, June 1997

    • Betts, Richard A.; Cox, Peter M.; Lee, Susan E.
    • Nature, Vol. 387, Issue 6635
    • DOI: 10.1038/42924

    Estimating regression models with unknown break-points
    journal, January 2003

    • Muggeo, Vito M. R.
    • Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 22, Issue 19
    • DOI: 10.1002/sim.1545

    Change in terrestrial ecosystem water-use efficiency over the last three decades
    journal, March 2015

    • Huang, Mengtian; Piao, Shilong; Sun, Yan
    • Global Change Biology, Vol. 21, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12873

    The response of ecosystem water‐use efficiency to rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations: sensitivity and large‐scale biogeochemical implications
    journal, November 2016

    • Knauer, Jürgen; Zaehle, Sönke; Reichstein, Markus
    • New Phytologist, Vol. 213, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1111/nph.14288

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    journal, March 2011


    Changes in climate and land use have a larger direct impact than rising CO2 on global river runoff trends
    journal, September 2007

    • Piao, S.; Friedlingstein, P.; Ciais, P.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 104, Issue 39
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0707213104

    Water-use efficiency and transpiration across European forests during the Anthropocene
    journal, May 2015

    • Frank, D. C.; Poulter, B.; Saurer, M.
    • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 5, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2614

    Stomatal conductance of forest species after long-term exposure to elevated CO2 concentration: a synthesis
    journal, February 2001


    The Globalization of Nitrogen Deposition: Consequences for Terrestrial Ecosystems
    journal, March 2002

    • Matson, Pamela; Lohse, Kathleen A.; Hall, Sharon J.
    • AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, Vol. 31, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1579/0044-7447-31.2.113

    Elevated CO 2 increases tree-level intrinsic water use efficiency: insights from carbon and oxygen isotope analyses in tree rings across three forest FACE sites
    journal, December 2012

    • Battipaglia, Giovanna; Saurer, Matthias; Cherubini, Paolo
    • New Phytologist, Vol. 197, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1111/nph.12044

    The effects of land use and climate change on the carbon cycle of E urope over the past 500 years
    journal, November 2011


    CO 2 emissions from land-use change affected more by nitrogen cycle, than by the choice of land-cover data
    journal, April 2013

    • Jain, Atul K.; Meiyappan, Prasanth; Song, Yang
    • Global Change Biology, Vol. 19, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12207

    Century-Scale Responses of Ecosystem Carbon Storage and Flux to Multiple Environmental Changes in the Southern United States
    journal, April 2012


    Global Consequences of Land Use
    journal, July 2005


    Dominant role of plant physiology in trend and variability of gross primary productivity in North America
    journal, February 2017

    • Zhou, Sha; Zhang, Yao; Ciais, Philippe
    • Scientific Reports, Vol. 7, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/srep41366

    Estimates of the Regression Coefficient Based on Kendall's Tau
    journal, December 1968


    Spatial variability and temporal trends in water-use efficiency of European forests
    journal, September 2014

    • Saurer, Matthias; Spahni, Renato; Frank, David C.
    • Global Change Biology, Vol. 20, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12717

    The North American Carbon Program Multi-Scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project – Part 1: Overview and experimental design
    journal, January 2013

    • Huntzinger, D. N.; Schwalm, C.; Michalak, A. M.
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 6, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-6-2121-2013

    Increased water-use efficiency during the 20th century did not translate into enhanced tree growth: Tree growth in the 20th century
    journal, November 2010


    Updated high-resolution grids of monthly climatic observations - the CRU TS3.10 Dataset: UPDATED HIGH-RESOLUTION GRIDS OF MONTHLY CLIMATIC OBSERVATIONS
    journal, May 2013

    • Harris, I.; Jones, P. D.; Osborn, T. J.
    • International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 34, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1002/joc.3711

    Forest water use and water use efficiency at elevated CO 2 : a model-data intercomparison at two contrasting temperate forest FACE sites
    journal, March 2013

    • De Kauwe, Martin G.; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Zaehle, Sönke
    • Global Change Biology, Vol. 19, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12164

    Evaluating the effects of future climate change and elevated CO2 on the water use efficiency in terrestrial ecosystems of China
    journal, July 2011


    Contributions of secondary forest and nitrogen dynamics to terrestrial carbon uptake
    journal, January 2010


    Effects of foliar nitrogen concentration on photosynthesis and water use efficiency in Douglas-fir
    journal, June 1993


    The impact of global land-cover change on the terrestrial water cycle
    journal, October 2012

    • Sterling, Shannon M.; Ducharne, Agnès; Polcher, Jan
    • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate1690