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Title: Coincidence velocity map imaging using Tpx3Cam, a time stamping optical camera with 1.5 ns timing resolution

Abstract

Here, we demonstrate a coincidence velocity map imaging apparatus equipped with a novel time-stamping fast optical camera, Tpx3Cam, whose high sensitivity and nanosecond timing resolution allow for simultaneous position and time-of-flight detection. This single detector design is simple, flexible, and capable of highly differential measurements. We show detailed characterization of the camera and its application in strong field ionization experiments.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [1];  [3]; ORCiD logo [5];  [6]; ORCiD logo [2];  [6];  [1]
  1. Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)
  2. Nikhef, Amsterdam (The Netherlands)
  3. Amsterdam Scientific Instruments, Amsterdam (The Netherlands)
  4. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kent State Univ., Kent, OH (United States); Shandong Univ., Shandong (China)
  5. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  6. Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
OSTI Identifier:
1408718
Report Number(s):
BNL-114472-2017-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748; TRN: US1703308
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0012704; FG02-08ER15983; 13-006
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Review of Scientific Instruments
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 88; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Zhao, Arthur, van Beuzekom, Martin, Bouwens, Bram, Byelov, Dmitry, Chakaberia, Irakli, Cheng, Chuan, Maddox, Erik, Nomerotski, Andrei, Svihra, Peter, Visser, Jan, Vrba, Vaclav, and Weinacht, Thomas. Coincidence velocity map imaging using Tpx3Cam, a time stamping optical camera with 1.5 ns timing resolution. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4996888.
Zhao, Arthur, van Beuzekom, Martin, Bouwens, Bram, Byelov, Dmitry, Chakaberia, Irakli, Cheng, Chuan, Maddox, Erik, Nomerotski, Andrei, Svihra, Peter, Visser, Jan, Vrba, Vaclav, & Weinacht, Thomas. Coincidence velocity map imaging using Tpx3Cam, a time stamping optical camera with 1.5 ns timing resolution. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4996888.
Zhao, Arthur, van Beuzekom, Martin, Bouwens, Bram, Byelov, Dmitry, Chakaberia, Irakli, Cheng, Chuan, Maddox, Erik, Nomerotski, Andrei, Svihra, Peter, Visser, Jan, Vrba, Vaclav, and Weinacht, Thomas. 2017. "Coincidence velocity map imaging using Tpx3Cam, a time stamping optical camera with 1.5 ns timing resolution". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4996888.
@article{osti_1408718,
title = {Coincidence velocity map imaging using Tpx3Cam, a time stamping optical camera with 1.5 ns timing resolution},
author = {Zhao, Arthur and van Beuzekom, Martin and Bouwens, Bram and Byelov, Dmitry and Chakaberia, Irakli and Cheng, Chuan and Maddox, Erik and Nomerotski, Andrei and Svihra, Peter and Visser, Jan and Vrba, Vaclav and Weinacht, Thomas},
abstractNote = {Here, we demonstrate a coincidence velocity map imaging apparatus equipped with a novel time-stamping fast optical camera, Tpx3Cam, whose high sensitivity and nanosecond timing resolution allow for simultaneous position and time-of-flight detection. This single detector design is simple, flexible, and capable of highly differential measurements. We show detailed characterization of the camera and its application in strong field ionization experiments.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4996888},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 11,
volume = 88,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month =
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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  • High spatial and temporal resolution are key features for many modern applications, e.g. mass spectrometry, probing the structure of materials via neutron scattering, studying molecular structure, etc. Fast imaging also provides the capability of coincidence detection, and the further addition of sensitivity to single optical photons with the capability of timestamping them further broadens the field of potential applications. Here, photon counting is already widely used in X-ray imaging, where the high energy of the photons makes their detection easier.
  • We describe a momentum resolving time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer that combines a high mass resolution, a velocity focusing condition for improved momentum resolution, and field-free conditions in the source region for high resolution electron detection. It is used in electron-ion coincidence experiments to record multiple ionic fragments produced in breakup reactions of small to medium sized molecules, such as F{sub 3}SiCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}. These breakup reactions are caused by soft x rays or intense laser fields. The ion spectrometer uses pulsed extraction fields, an electrostatic lens, and a delay line detector to resolve the position. Additionally, we describemore » a simple analytical method for calculating the momentum from the measured hit position and the time of flight of the ions.« less
  • We report on the construction and performance of a novel photoelectron-photoion coincidence machine in our laboratory in Amsterdam to measure the full three-dimensional momentum distribution of correlated electrons and ions in femtosecond time-resolved molecular beam experiments. We implemented sets of open electron and ion lenses to time stretch and velocity map the charged particles. Time switched voltages are operated on the particle lenses to enable optimal electric field strengths for velocity map focusing conditions of electrons and ions separately. The position and time sensitive detectors employ microchannel plates (MCPs) in front of delay line detectors. A special effort was mademore » to obtain the time-of-flight (TOF) of the electrons at high temporal resolution using small pore (5 {mu}m) MCPs and implementing fast timing electronics. We measured the TOF distribution of the electrons under our typical coincidence field strengths with a temporal resolution down to {sigma}=18 ps. We observed that our electron coincidence detector has a timing resolution better than {sigma}=16 ps, which is mainly determined by the residual transit time spread of the MCPs. The typical electron energy resolution appears to be nearly laser bandwidth limited with a relative resolution of {delta}E{sub FWHM}/E=3.5% for electrons with kinetic energy near 2 eV. The mass resolution of the ion detector for ions measured in coincidence with electrons is about {delta}m{sub FWHM}/m=1/4150. The velocity map focusing of our extended source volume of particles, due to the overlap of the molecular beam with the laser beams, results in a parent ion spot on our detector focused down to {sigma}=115 {mu}m.« less
  • In this paper we present a laser sensor for highly spatially resolved flow imaging without using a camera. The sensor is an extension of the principle of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). Instead of a parallel fringe system, diverging and converging fringes are employed. This method facilitates the determination of the tracer particle position within the measurement volume and leads to an increased spatial and velocity resolution compared to conventional LDA. Using a total number of four fringe systems the flow is resolved in two spatial dimensions and the orthogonal velocity component. Since no camera is used, the resolution of themore » sensor is not influenced by pixel size effects. A spatial resolution of 4 {mu}m in the x direction and 16 {mu}m in the y direction and a relative velocity resolution of 1x10{sup -3} have been demonstrated up to now. As a first application we present the velocity measurement of an injection nozzle flow. The sensor is also highly suitable for applications in nano- and microfluidics, e.g., for the measurement of flow rates.« less