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Title: Enabling fast charging – Infrastructure and economic considerations

Abstract

The ability to charge battery electric vehicles (BEVs) on a time scale that is on par with the time to fuel an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) would remove a significant barrier to the adoption of BEVs. However, for viability, fast charging at this time scale needs to also occur at a price that is acceptable to consumers. Therefore, the cost drivers for both BEV owners and charging station providers are analyzed. In addition, key infrastructure considerations are examined, including grid stability and delivery of power, the design of fast charging stations and the design and use of electric vehicle service equipment. Each of these aspects have technical barriers that need to be addressed, and are directly linked to economic impacts to use and implementation. This discussion focuses on both the economic and infrastructure issues which exist and need to be addressed for the effective implementation of fast charging at 400 kW and above. In so doing, it has been found that there is a distinct need to effectively manage the intermittent, high power demand of fast charging, strategically plan infrastructure corridors, and to further understand the cost of operation of charging infrastructure and BEVs.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1408692
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5400-68767
Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7753
DOE Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Power Sources; Journal Volume: 367; Journal Issue: C
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; extreme fast charging (XFC); electric vehicle infrastructure; battery electric vehicles; demand charges; total cost of ownership, economics

Citation Formats

Burnham, Andrew, Dufek, Eric J., Stephens, Thomas, Francfort, James, Michelbacher, Christopher, Carlson, Richard B., Zhang, Jiucai, Vijayagopal, Ram, Dias, Fernando, Mohanpurkar, Manish, Scoffield, Don, Hardy, Keith, Shirk, Matthew, Hovsapian, Rob, Ahmed, Shabbir, Bloom, Ira, Jansen, Andrew N., Keyser, Matthew, Kreuzer, Cory, Markel, Anthony, Meintz, Andrew, Pesaran, Ahmad, and Tanim, Tanvir R.. Enabling fast charging – Infrastructure and economic considerations. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.06.079.
Burnham, Andrew, Dufek, Eric J., Stephens, Thomas, Francfort, James, Michelbacher, Christopher, Carlson, Richard B., Zhang, Jiucai, Vijayagopal, Ram, Dias, Fernando, Mohanpurkar, Manish, Scoffield, Don, Hardy, Keith, Shirk, Matthew, Hovsapian, Rob, Ahmed, Shabbir, Bloom, Ira, Jansen, Andrew N., Keyser, Matthew, Kreuzer, Cory, Markel, Anthony, Meintz, Andrew, Pesaran, Ahmad, & Tanim, Tanvir R.. Enabling fast charging – Infrastructure and economic considerations. United States. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.06.079.
Burnham, Andrew, Dufek, Eric J., Stephens, Thomas, Francfort, James, Michelbacher, Christopher, Carlson, Richard B., Zhang, Jiucai, Vijayagopal, Ram, Dias, Fernando, Mohanpurkar, Manish, Scoffield, Don, Hardy, Keith, Shirk, Matthew, Hovsapian, Rob, Ahmed, Shabbir, Bloom, Ira, Jansen, Andrew N., Keyser, Matthew, Kreuzer, Cory, Markel, Anthony, Meintz, Andrew, Pesaran, Ahmad, and Tanim, Tanvir R.. Wed . "Enabling fast charging – Infrastructure and economic considerations". United States. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.06.079.
@article{osti_1408692,
title = {Enabling fast charging – Infrastructure and economic considerations},
author = {Burnham, Andrew and Dufek, Eric J. and Stephens, Thomas and Francfort, James and Michelbacher, Christopher and Carlson, Richard B. and Zhang, Jiucai and Vijayagopal, Ram and Dias, Fernando and Mohanpurkar, Manish and Scoffield, Don and Hardy, Keith and Shirk, Matthew and Hovsapian, Rob and Ahmed, Shabbir and Bloom, Ira and Jansen, Andrew N. and Keyser, Matthew and Kreuzer, Cory and Markel, Anthony and Meintz, Andrew and Pesaran, Ahmad and Tanim, Tanvir R.},
abstractNote = {The ability to charge battery electric vehicles (BEVs) on a time scale that is on par with the time to fuel an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) would remove a significant barrier to the adoption of BEVs. However, for viability, fast charging at this time scale needs to also occur at a price that is acceptable to consumers. Therefore, the cost drivers for both BEV owners and charging station providers are analyzed. In addition, key infrastructure considerations are examined, including grid stability and delivery of power, the design of fast charging stations and the design and use of electric vehicle service equipment. Each of these aspects have technical barriers that need to be addressed, and are directly linked to economic impacts to use and implementation. This discussion focuses on both the economic and infrastructure issues which exist and need to be addressed for the effective implementation of fast charging at 400 kW and above. In so doing, it has been found that there is a distinct need to effectively manage the intermittent, high power demand of fast charging, strategically plan infrastructure corridors, and to further understand the cost of operation of charging infrastructure and BEVs.},
doi = {10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.06.079},
journal = {Journal of Power Sources},
number = C,
volume = 367,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Nov 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Wed Nov 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}