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Title: Enabling fast charging – Vehicle considerations

Abstract

To achieve a successful increase in the plug-in battery electric vehicle (BEV) market it is anticipated that a significant improvement in battery performance is required to improve the range that BEVs can travel. While the range that BEVs can travel on a single recharge is improving, the rate at which these vehicles can be recharged is still much slower than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. To achieve comparable recharge times we explore the vehicle considerations of charge rates up to 350 kW. This faster recharge is expected to significantly mitigate the perceived deficiencies for long-distance transportation, to provide alternative charging in densely populated areas where overnight charging at home may not be possible, and to reduce range anxiety for travel within a city when unplanned charging maybe required. This substantial increase in the charging rate is expected to create technical issues in the design of the battery system and the vehicle electrical architecture that must be resolved. This work will focus on the battery system thermal design and total recharge time to meet the goals of implementing higher charge rates as well as the impacts of the expected increase in system voltage on the components of the vehicle.

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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1408687
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1402681; OSTI ID: 1418663
Report Number(s):
INL/JOU-17-42221; NREL/JA-5400-68176
Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7753; PII: S0378775317309898
Grant/Contract Number:
AC07-05ID14517; AC36-08GO28308; AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Power Sources
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 367; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7753
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY, AND ECONOMY; ELECTRIC VEHICLE; FAST CHARGING; 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; direct current fast charging; dcfc; battery electric vehicles; bev; extreme fast charging; xfc; long-distance travel; Direct current fast charging (DCFC); battery electric vehicles (BEV); extreme fast charging (XFC); power electronics

Citation Formats

Meintz, Andrew, Zhang, Jiucai, Vijayagopal, Ram, Kreutzer, Cory, Ahmed, Shabbir, Bloom, Ira, Burnham, Andrew, Carlson, Richard B., Dias, Fernando, Dufek, Eric J., Francfort, James, Hardy, Keith, Jansen, Andrew N., Keyser, Matthew, Markel, Anthony, Michelbacher, Christopher, Mohanpurkar, Manish, Pesaran, Ahmad, Scoffield, Don, Shirk, Matthew, Stephens, Thomas, and Tanim, Tanvir. Enabling fast charging – Vehicle considerations. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.07.093.
Meintz, Andrew, Zhang, Jiucai, Vijayagopal, Ram, Kreutzer, Cory, Ahmed, Shabbir, Bloom, Ira, Burnham, Andrew, Carlson, Richard B., Dias, Fernando, Dufek, Eric J., Francfort, James, Hardy, Keith, Jansen, Andrew N., Keyser, Matthew, Markel, Anthony, Michelbacher, Christopher, Mohanpurkar, Manish, Pesaran, Ahmad, Scoffield, Don, Shirk, Matthew, Stephens, Thomas, & Tanim, Tanvir. Enabling fast charging – Vehicle considerations. United States. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.07.093.
Meintz, Andrew, Zhang, Jiucai, Vijayagopal, Ram, Kreutzer, Cory, Ahmed, Shabbir, Bloom, Ira, Burnham, Andrew, Carlson, Richard B., Dias, Fernando, Dufek, Eric J., Francfort, James, Hardy, Keith, Jansen, Andrew N., Keyser, Matthew, Markel, Anthony, Michelbacher, Christopher, Mohanpurkar, Manish, Pesaran, Ahmad, Scoffield, Don, Shirk, Matthew, Stephens, Thomas, and Tanim, Tanvir. Wed . "Enabling fast charging – Vehicle considerations". United States. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.07.093.
@article{osti_1408687,
title = {Enabling fast charging – Vehicle considerations},
author = {Meintz, Andrew and Zhang, Jiucai and Vijayagopal, Ram and Kreutzer, Cory and Ahmed, Shabbir and Bloom, Ira and Burnham, Andrew and Carlson, Richard B. and Dias, Fernando and Dufek, Eric J. and Francfort, James and Hardy, Keith and Jansen, Andrew N. and Keyser, Matthew and Markel, Anthony and Michelbacher, Christopher and Mohanpurkar, Manish and Pesaran, Ahmad and Scoffield, Don and Shirk, Matthew and Stephens, Thomas and Tanim, Tanvir},
abstractNote = {To achieve a successful increase in the plug-in battery electric vehicle (BEV) market it is anticipated that a significant improvement in battery performance is required to improve the range that BEVs can travel. While the range that BEVs can travel on a single recharge is improving, the rate at which these vehicles can be recharged is still much slower than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. To achieve comparable recharge times we explore the vehicle considerations of charge rates up to 350 kW. This faster recharge is expected to significantly mitigate the perceived deficiencies for long-distance transportation, to provide alternative charging in densely populated areas where overnight charging at home may not be possible, and to reduce range anxiety for travel within a city when unplanned charging maybe required. This substantial increase in the charging rate is expected to create technical issues in the design of the battery system and the vehicle electrical architecture that must be resolved. This work will focus on the battery system thermal design and total recharge time to meet the goals of implementing higher charge rates as well as the impacts of the expected increase in system voltage on the components of the vehicle.},
doi = {10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.07.093},
journal = {Journal of Power Sources},
number = C,
volume = 367,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Nov 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Wed Nov 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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  • To achieve a successful increase in the plug-in battery electric vehicle (BEV) market it is anticipated that a significant improvement in battery performance is required to improve the range that BEVs can travel. While the range that BEVs can travel on a single recharge is improving, the rate at which these vehicles can be recharged is still much slower than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. To achieve comparable recharge times we explore the vehicle considerations of charge rates up to 350 kW. This faster recharge is expected to significantly mitigate the perceived deficiencies for long-distance transportation, to provide alternative chargingmore » in densely populated areas where overnight charging at home may not be possible, and to reduce range anxiety for travel within a city when unplanned charging maybe required. This substantial increase in the charging rate is expected to create technical issues in the design of the battery system and the vehicle electrical architecture that must be resolved. This work will focus on the battery system thermal design and total recharge time to meet the goals of implementing higher charge rates as well as the impacts of the expected increase in system voltage on the components of the vehicle.« less
  • To achieve a successful increase in the plug-in battery electric vehicle (BEV) market, it is anticipated that a significant improvement in battery performance is required to improve the range that BEVs can travel and the rate at which they can be recharged. While the range that BEVs can travel on a single recharge is improving, the recharging rate is still much slower than the refueling rate of conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. To achieve comparable recharge times, we explore the vehicle considerations of charge rates of at least 400 kW. Faster recharge is expected to significantly mitigate the perceived deficienciesmore » for long-distance transportation, to provide alternative charging in densely populated areas where overnight charging at home may not be possible, and to reduce range anxiety for travel within a city when unplanned charging may be required. This substantial increase in charging rate is expected to create technical issues in the design of the battery system and vehicle’s electrical architecture that must be resolved. This work focuses on battery system thermal design and total recharge time to meet the goals of implementing higher charge rates and the impacts of the expected increase in system voltage on the components of the vehicle.« less
  • The ability to charge battery electric vehicles (BEVs) on a time scale that is on par with the time to fuel an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) would remove a significant barrier to the adoption of BEVs. However, for viability, fast charging at this time scale needs to also occur at a price that is acceptable to consumers. Therefore, the cost drivers for both BEV owners and charging station providers are analyzed. In addition, key infrastructure considerations are examined, including grid stability and delivery of power, the design of fast charging stations and the design and use of electric vehiclemore » service equipment. Each of these aspects have technical barriers that need to be addressed, and are directly linked to economic impacts to use and implementation. This discussion focuses on both the economic and infrastructure issues which exist and need to be addressed for the effective implementation of fast charging at 400 kW and above. In so doing, it has been found that there is a distinct need to effectively manage the intermittent, high power demand of fast charging, strategically plan infrastructure corridors, and to further understand the cost of operation of charging infrastructure and BEVs.« less
  • Battery thermal barriers are reviewed with regards to extreme fast charging. Present-day thermal management systems for battery electric vehicles are inadequate in limiting the maximum temperature rise of the battery during extreme fast charging. If the battery thermal management system is not designed correctly, the temperature of the cells could reach abuse temperatures and potentially send the cells into thermal runaway. Furthermore, the cell and battery interconnect design needs to be improved to meet the lifetime expectations of the consumer. Each of these aspects is explored and addressed as well as outlining where the heat is generated in a cell,more » the efficiencies of power and energy cells, and what type of battery thermal management solutions are available in today’s market. Here, thermal management is not a limiting condition with regard to extreme fast charging, but many factors need to be addressed especially for future high specific energy density cells to meet U.S. Department of Energy cost and volume goals.« less
  • The ability to charge battery electric vehicles (BEVs) on a time scale that is on par with the time to fuel an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) would remove a significant barrier to the adoption of BEVs. However, for viability, fast charging at this time scale needs to also occur at a price that is acceptable to consumers. Therefore, the cost drivers for both BEV owners and charging station providers are analyzed. In addition, key infrastructure considerations are examined, including grid stability and delivery of power, the design of fast charging stations and the design and use of electric vehiclemore » service equipment. Each of these aspects have technical barriers that need to be addressed, and are directly linked to economic impacts to use and implementation. Here, this discussion focuses on both the economic and infrastructure issues which exist and need to be addressed for the effective implementation of fast charging up to 350 kW. In doing so, it has been found that there is a distinct need to effectively manage the intermittent, high power demand of fast charging, strategically plan infrastructure corridors, and to further understand the cost of operation of charging infrastructure and BEVs.« less