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Title: Enabling fast charging – A battery technology gap assessment

Abstract

The battery technology literature is reviewed, with an emphasis on key elements that limit extreme fast charging. Key gaps in existing elements of the technology are presented as well as developmental needs. Among these needs are advanced models and methods to detect and prevent lithium plating; new positive-electrode materials which are less prone to stress-induced failure; better electrode designs to accommodate very rapid diffusion in and out of the electrode; measure temperature distributions during fast charge to enable/validate models; and develop thermal management and pack designs to accommodate the higher operating voltage.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1408686
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5400-68766
Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7753
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Power Sources; Journal Volume: 367; Journal Issue: C
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; lithium-ion battery; extreme fast charging; developmental needs

Citation Formats

Ahmed, Shabbir, Bloom, Ira, Jansen, Andrew N., Tanim, Tanvir, Dufek, Eric J., Pesaran, Ahmad, Burnham, Andrew, Carlson, Richard B., Dias, Fernando, Hardy, Keith, Keyser, Matthew, Kreuzer, Cory, Markel, Anthony, Meintz, Andrew, Michelbacher, Christopher, Mohanpurkar, Manish, Nelson, Paul A., Robertson, David C., Scoffield, Don, Shirk, Matthew, Stephens, Thomas, Vijayagopal, Ram, and Zhang, Jiucai. Enabling fast charging – A battery technology gap assessment. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.06.055.
Ahmed, Shabbir, Bloom, Ira, Jansen, Andrew N., Tanim, Tanvir, Dufek, Eric J., Pesaran, Ahmad, Burnham, Andrew, Carlson, Richard B., Dias, Fernando, Hardy, Keith, Keyser, Matthew, Kreuzer, Cory, Markel, Anthony, Meintz, Andrew, Michelbacher, Christopher, Mohanpurkar, Manish, Nelson, Paul A., Robertson, David C., Scoffield, Don, Shirk, Matthew, Stephens, Thomas, Vijayagopal, Ram, & Zhang, Jiucai. Enabling fast charging – A battery technology gap assessment. United States. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.06.055.
Ahmed, Shabbir, Bloom, Ira, Jansen, Andrew N., Tanim, Tanvir, Dufek, Eric J., Pesaran, Ahmad, Burnham, Andrew, Carlson, Richard B., Dias, Fernando, Hardy, Keith, Keyser, Matthew, Kreuzer, Cory, Markel, Anthony, Meintz, Andrew, Michelbacher, Christopher, Mohanpurkar, Manish, Nelson, Paul A., Robertson, David C., Scoffield, Don, Shirk, Matthew, Stephens, Thomas, Vijayagopal, Ram, and Zhang, Jiucai. Wed . "Enabling fast charging – A battery technology gap assessment". United States. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.06.055.
@article{osti_1408686,
title = {Enabling fast charging – A battery technology gap assessment},
author = {Ahmed, Shabbir and Bloom, Ira and Jansen, Andrew N. and Tanim, Tanvir and Dufek, Eric J. and Pesaran, Ahmad and Burnham, Andrew and Carlson, Richard B. and Dias, Fernando and Hardy, Keith and Keyser, Matthew and Kreuzer, Cory and Markel, Anthony and Meintz, Andrew and Michelbacher, Christopher and Mohanpurkar, Manish and Nelson, Paul A. and Robertson, David C. and Scoffield, Don and Shirk, Matthew and Stephens, Thomas and Vijayagopal, Ram and Zhang, Jiucai},
abstractNote = {The battery technology literature is reviewed, with an emphasis on key elements that limit extreme fast charging. Key gaps in existing elements of the technology are presented as well as developmental needs. Among these needs are advanced models and methods to detect and prevent lithium plating; new positive-electrode materials which are less prone to stress-induced failure; better electrode designs to accommodate very rapid diffusion in and out of the electrode; measure temperature distributions during fast charge to enable/validate models; and develop thermal management and pack designs to accommodate the higher operating voltage.},
doi = {10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.06.055},
journal = {Journal of Power Sources},
number = C,
volume = 367,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Nov 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Wed Nov 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}
  • The battery technology literature is reviewed, with an emphasis on key elements that limit extreme fast charging. Key gaps in existing elements of the technology are presented as well as developmental needs. Among these needs are advanced models and methods to detect and prevent lithium plating; new positive-electrode materials which are less prone to stress-induced failure; better electrode designs to accommodate very rapid diffusion in and out of the electrode; measure temperature distributions during fast charge to enable / validate models; and develop thermal management and pack designs to accommodate the higher operating voltage.
  • The battery technology literature is reviewed, with an emphasis on key elements that limit extreme fast charging. Key gaps in existing elements of the technology are presented as well as developmental needs. Among these needs are advanced models and methods to detect and prevent lithium plating; new positive-electrode materials which are less prone to stress-induced failure; better electrode designs to accommodate very rapid diffusion in and out of the electrode; and thermal management and pack designs to accommodate the higher operating voltage.
  • Decreasing energy consumption across the U.S. transportation sector, especially in commercial light-duty vehicles, is essential for the United States to gain energy independence. Recently, powertrain electrification with plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) have gained traction as an alternative due to their inherent efficiency advantages compared to the traditional internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). Even though there are many different classes of PEVs, the intent of this study is to focus on non-hybrid powertrains, or battery electric vehicles (BEVs).
  • Battery thermal barriers are reviewed with regards to extreme fast charging. Present-day thermal management systems for battery electric vehicles are inadequate in limiting the maximum temperature rise of the battery during extreme fast charging. If the battery thermal management system is not designed correctly, the temperature of the cells could reach abuse temperatures and potentially send the cells into thermal runaway. Furthermore, the cell and battery interconnect design needs to be improved to meet the lifetime expectations of the consumer. Each of these aspects is explored and addressed as well as outlining where the heat is generated in a cell,more » the efficiencies of power and energy cells, and what type of battery thermal management solutions are available in today’s market. Here, thermal management is not a limiting condition with regard to extreme fast charging, but many factors need to be addressed especially for future high specific energy density cells to meet U.S. Department of Energy cost and volume goals.« less
  • Battery thermal barriers are reviewed with regards to extreme fast charging. Present-day thermal management systems for battery electric vehicles are inadequate in limiting the maximum temperature rise of the battery during extreme fast charging. If the battery thermal management system is not designed correctly, the temperature of the cells could reach abuse temperatures and potentially send the cells into thermal runaway. Furthermore, the cell and battery interconnect design needs to be improved to meet the lifetime expectations of the consumer. Each of these aspects is explored and addressed as well as outlining where the heat is generated in a cell,more » the efficiencies of power and energy cells, and what type of battery thermal management solutions are available in today’s market. Here, thermal management is not a limiting condition with regard to extreme fast charging, but many factors need to be addressed especially for future high specific energy density cells to meet U.S. Department of Energy cost and volume goals.« less