skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Characteristics and Energy Use of Volume Servers in the United States

Abstract

Servers’ field energy use remains poorly understood, given heterogeneous computing loads, configurable hardware and software, and operation over a wide range of management practices. This paper explores various characteristics of 1- and 2-socket volume servers that affect energy consumption, and quantifies the difference in power demand between higher-performing SPEC and ENERGY STAR servers and our best understanding of a typical server operating today. We first establish general characteristics of the U.S. installed base of volume servers from existing IDC data and the literature, before presenting information on server hardware configurations from data collection events at a major online retail website. We then compare cumulative distribution functions of server idle power across three separate datasets and explain the differences between them via examination of the hardware characteristics to which power draw is most sensitive. We find that idle server power demand is significantly higher than ENERGY STAR benchmarks and the industry-released energy use documented in SPEC, and that SPEC server configurations—and likely the associated power-scaling trends—are atypical of volume servers. Next, we examine recent trends in server power draw among high-performing servers across their full load range to consider how representative these trends are of all volume servers before inputting weightedmore » average idle power load values into a recently published model of national server energy use. Finally, we present results from two surveys of IT managers (n=216) and IT vendors (n=178) that illustrate the prevalence of more-efficient equipment and operational practices in server rooms and closets; these findings highlight opportunities to improve the energy efficiency of the U.S. server stock.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [3]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  2. Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States)
  3. Navigant Consulting Inc., Chicago, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Building Technologies Office (EE-5B)
OSTI Identifier:
1408486
DOE Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
97 MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTING

Citation Formats

Fuchs, H., Shehabi, A., Ganeshalingam, M., Desroches, L. -B., Lim, B., Roth, K., and Tsao, A. Characteristics and Energy Use of Volume Servers in the United States. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1408486.
Fuchs, H., Shehabi, A., Ganeshalingam, M., Desroches, L. -B., Lim, B., Roth, K., & Tsao, A. Characteristics and Energy Use of Volume Servers in the United States. United States. doi:10.2172/1408486.
Fuchs, H., Shehabi, A., Ganeshalingam, M., Desroches, L. -B., Lim, B., Roth, K., and Tsao, A. 2017. "Characteristics and Energy Use of Volume Servers in the United States". United States. doi:10.2172/1408486. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1408486.
@article{osti_1408486,
title = {Characteristics and Energy Use of Volume Servers in the United States},
author = {Fuchs, H. and Shehabi, A. and Ganeshalingam, M. and Desroches, L. -B. and Lim, B. and Roth, K. and Tsao, A.},
abstractNote = {Servers’ field energy use remains poorly understood, given heterogeneous computing loads, configurable hardware and software, and operation over a wide range of management practices. This paper explores various characteristics of 1- and 2-socket volume servers that affect energy consumption, and quantifies the difference in power demand between higher-performing SPEC and ENERGY STAR servers and our best understanding of a typical server operating today. We first establish general characteristics of the U.S. installed base of volume servers from existing IDC data and the literature, before presenting information on server hardware configurations from data collection events at a major online retail website. We then compare cumulative distribution functions of server idle power across three separate datasets and explain the differences between them via examination of the hardware characteristics to which power draw is most sensitive. We find that idle server power demand is significantly higher than ENERGY STAR benchmarks and the industry-released energy use documented in SPEC, and that SPEC server configurations—and likely the associated power-scaling trends—are atypical of volume servers. Next, we examine recent trends in server power draw among high-performing servers across their full load range to consider how representative these trends are of all volume servers before inputting weighted average idle power load values into a recently published model of national server energy use. Finally, we present results from two surveys of IT managers (n=216) and IT vendors (n=178) that illustrate the prevalence of more-efficient equipment and operational practices in server rooms and closets; these findings highlight opportunities to improve the energy efficiency of the U.S. server stock.},
doi = {10.2172/1408486},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month =
}

Technical Report:

Save / Share:
  • A water sample was collected from each of 1612 lakes. This subset of lakes was selected from within three regions of the eastern U.S. (the Northeast, Upper Midwest, and Southeast) expected to exhibit low buffering capacity. Each region was divided in subregions. Subregions were further stratified by alkalinity map class. A suite of chemical variables and physical attributes thought to influence or be influenced by surface-water acidification was measured for each lake. The results of these measurements and data analyses are described in the report.
  • In this report, statistical data on production and consumption and supporting information have been obtained from US Bureau of Mines records supplemented by additional data obtained in Peru. Geologic description and analysis of known areas and of areas having possible future potential have been prepared by the Geological Survey. Petroleum is the principal source of energy. With the completion and operation of the pipeline from northeast Peru across the Andes, Peru has very recently become self-sufficient in petroleum. Eleven separate coal fields are known in Peru; complex structure and high ash content of much of the coal has precluded othermore » than minimal utilization of the coal to date. Some of the coal is of coking quality. Geology of the more promising coal fields is reviewed, but reserves for the future are uncertain because of lack of relevant and adequate data. Various reconnaissance investigations between 1933 and 1972 have been made for uranium. These were almost entirely confined to the more easily accessible parts of western Peru. Although some areas of low-level radioactivity were detected, no deposits of possible economic potential were identified. Potential for geothermal energy, especially in southern Peru, is believed to be present and could be large. No serious investigations of this potential seem to have been made. Field investigations should be started as soon as possible, followed by drilling. The report also includes a section on water needs and a section on energy-related minerals needed in connection with development of new supplies of energy from non-renewable sources. Separate abstracts have been prepared for chapters for inclusion in the Energy Database.« less
  • This report presents the results of a brief study of industral, mining, and agricultural sector energy demands in Peru. The study establishes current energy demands and sectoral activities, and projects future energy needs through the year 2000. With respect to energy demands, the subsectors covered are: mining and non-ferrous metals, iron and steel, cement, oil refining, petrochemicals, fertilizers, and agriculture (major crops). Total energy demands for these subsectors are developed for 1976, 1985, and 2000, assuming full-capacity operation for the majority of the plants. Potential options developed for reducing energy use in these sectors are: increased coal use, improved energymore » efficiency in the manufacturing sector, use of agricultural wastes as fuel, possible displacement of oil by hydroelectricity, use of geothermal energy, increased use of water materials for the cement and construction industries, and possible promotion of cogeneration systems (electricity/steam). (MCW)« less
  • A comprehensive assessment of the biofuel potential of Peru is presented. Topics discussed cover current biofuel utilization practices; evaluation of Peruvian biomass productivity; identification of Peruvian agricultural and forestry resources; assessment of resource development and management concerns; identification of market considerations; description of biofuel technological options; and regional identification of biofuel technology applications. The discussion of current biofuel utilization centers on a qualitative description of the main conversion approaches now being practiced in Peru. Biomass productivity is evaluated in the context of the terrain, soil, and climatic conditions found in Peru. A quantitative description of the energy potential that couldmore » be realized from agricultural and forestry resources of Peru follows. A regional picture is given for the production of agricultural residues and forest resources that could potentially supply energy. The assessment of resource development and management concerns focuses on harvesting, reforestation, training, and the environmental consequences of utilization of forest resources. Market factors assessed include: importation, internal market development, external market development, energy policy and pricing, and transportation. Ten biofuel technology options for Peru were identified: small- to medium-scale gasification, a wood waste inventory, stationary and mobile charcoal production systems, wood distillation, forest resource development and management, electrical cogeneration, anaerobic digestion technology, development of ethanol production capabilities, and agricultural strategies for fuel production.Based upon these biofuel options, nine applications were identified for the Costa Region, eight for the Sierra Region, and ten for the Selva Region.« less
  • An examination of the energy sources of Peru was undertaken by the USA in collaboration with Peru. First, an introduction establishes the purpose and summarizes results, after which the status of energy supply is presented. The ensuing sections contain the contributions of the participating technical specialists, namely: Peru's hydrocarbon potential, estimated reserves, and projected production rates; coal deposits in Peru; geothermal energy; uranium; miscellaneous energy sources; energy-related minerals; water resources in Peru; and geologic hazards in Peru. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the sections. (MCW)