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Title: Lesion complexity drives age related cancer susceptibility in human mammary epithelial cells

Abstract

Exposures to various DNA damaging agents can deregulate a wide array of critical mechanisms that maintain genome integrity. It is unclear how these processes are impacted by one's age at the time of exposure and the complexity of the DNA lesion. To clarify this, we employed radiation as a tool to generate simple and complex lesions in normal primary human mammary epithelial cells derived from women of various ages. We hypothesized that genomic instability in the progeny of older cells exposed to complex damages will be exacerbated by age-associated deterioration in function and accentuate age-related cancer predisposition. Centrosome aberrations and changes in stem cell numbers were examined to assess cancer susceptibility. Our data show that the frequency of centrosome aberrations proportionately increases with age following complex damage causing exposures. However, a dose-dependent increase in stem cell numbers was independent of both age and the nature of the insult. Phospho-protein signatures provide mechanistic clues to signaling networks implicated in these effects. Together these studies suggest that complex damage can threaten the genome stability of the stem cell population in older people. Propagation of this instability is subject to influence by the microenvironment and will ultimately define cancer risk in the oldermore » population.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  2. City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1408407
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Aging
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 1945-4589
Publisher:
Impact Journals
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Sridharan, Deepa M., Enerio, Shiena, Stampfer, Martha M., LaBarge, Mark A., and Pluth, Janice M. Lesion complexity drives age related cancer susceptibility in human mammary epithelial cells. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.18632/aging.101183.
Sridharan, Deepa M., Enerio, Shiena, Stampfer, Martha M., LaBarge, Mark A., & Pluth, Janice M. Lesion complexity drives age related cancer susceptibility in human mammary epithelial cells. United States. doi:10.18632/aging.101183.
Sridharan, Deepa M., Enerio, Shiena, Stampfer, Martha M., LaBarge, Mark A., and Pluth, Janice M. Tue . "Lesion complexity drives age related cancer susceptibility in human mammary epithelial cells". United States. doi:10.18632/aging.101183. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1408407.
@article{osti_1408407,
title = {Lesion complexity drives age related cancer susceptibility in human mammary epithelial cells},
author = {Sridharan, Deepa M. and Enerio, Shiena and Stampfer, Martha M. and LaBarge, Mark A. and Pluth, Janice M.},
abstractNote = {Exposures to various DNA damaging agents can deregulate a wide array of critical mechanisms that maintain genome integrity. It is unclear how these processes are impacted by one's age at the time of exposure and the complexity of the DNA lesion. To clarify this, we employed radiation as a tool to generate simple and complex lesions in normal primary human mammary epithelial cells derived from women of various ages. We hypothesized that genomic instability in the progeny of older cells exposed to complex damages will be exacerbated by age-associated deterioration in function and accentuate age-related cancer predisposition. Centrosome aberrations and changes in stem cell numbers were examined to assess cancer susceptibility. Our data show that the frequency of centrosome aberrations proportionately increases with age following complex damage causing exposures. However, a dose-dependent increase in stem cell numbers was independent of both age and the nature of the insult. Phospho-protein signatures provide mechanistic clues to signaling networks implicated in these effects. Together these studies suggest that complex damage can threaten the genome stability of the stem cell population in older people. Propagation of this instability is subject to influence by the microenvironment and will ultimately define cancer risk in the older population.},
doi = {10.18632/aging.101183},
journal = {Aging},
number = 3,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Feb 28 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Tue Feb 28 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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  • A human cDNA library obtained from cultured normal mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) was searched by subtractive hybridization for genes whose decrease in expression might be relevant to epithelial transformation. One clone identified by this procedure corresponded to a 1.4 kilobase mRNA, designated NB-1, whose expression was decreased >50-fold in HMECs tumorigenically transformed in vitro after exposure to benzo({alpha})pyrene and Kirsten sarcoma virus. Sequence analysis of NB-1 cDNA revealed an open reading frame with a high degree of homology to calmodulin. NB-1 expression could be demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction amplification in normal breast, prostate, cervix, and epidermal tissues. The presencemore » of NB-1 transcripts was variable in primary breast carcinoma tissues and undetectable in tumor-derived cell lines of breast, prostate, or other origins. NB-1 mRNA expression could be down-regulated in cultured HMECs by exposure to reconstituted extracellular matrix material, while exposure to transforming growth factor type {beta} increased its relative abundance. The protein encoded by NB-1 may have Ca{sup 2{sup plus}} binding properties and perform functions similar to those of authentic calmodulin. Its possible roles in differentiation and/or suppression of tumorigenicity in epithelial tissues remain to be examined.« less
  • Human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are most commonly associated with cervical carcinoma in patients and induce immortalization of human keratinocytes in culture. HPV has not been associated with breast cancer. This report describes the immortalization of normal human mammary epithelial cells (76N) by plasmid pHPV18 or pHPV16, each containing the linearized viral genome. Transfectants were grown continuously for more than 60 passages, whereas 76N cells senesce after 18-20 passages. The transfectants also differ from 76N cells in cloning in a completely defined medium called D2 and growing a minimally supplemented defined medium (D3) containing epidermal growth factor.more » All transfectant tested contain integrated HPV DNA, express HPV RNA, and produce HPV E7 protein. HPV transfectants do not form tumors in a nude mouse assay. It is concluded that products of the HPV genome induce immortalization of human breast epithelial cells and reduce their growth factor requirements. This result raises the possibility that HPV might be involved in breast cancer. Furthermore, other tissue-specific primary epithelial cells that are presently difficult to grown and investigate may also be immortalized by HPV.« less
  • A calmodulin (CaM)-like protein (hCLP) is expressed in human mammary epithelial cells but appears to be limited to certain epithelial cells such as those found in skin, prostate, breast and cervical tissues. A decrease in the expression of this protein is associated with the occurrence of tumors in breast epithelium. The structure of hCLP determined to 1.5 Å resolution by X-ray crystallography shows a distinct 30° displacement along the interconnecting central helix, when compared to the highly conserved structure of vertebrate CaM, resulting in a difference in the relative orientation of its two globular domains. Additionally, the electric surface potentialmore » landscape at the target protein binding regions on the two globular domains of hCLP is significantly different from those of CaM, indicating that the respective ranges of hCLP and hCaM target proteins do not fully overlap. Observations that hCLP can competitively inhibit CaM activation of target proteins also imply a role for hCLP in which it may also serve as a modulator of CaM activity in the epithelial cells where hCLP is expressed.« less
  • Urine and breast milk represent the main routes of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) transmission but the contribution of renal and mammary epithelial cells to viral excretion remains unclear. We observed that kidney and mammary epithelial cells were permissive to HCMV infection and expressed immediate early, early and late antigens within 72 h of infection. During the first 24 h after infection, high titers of infectious virus were measured associated to the cells and in culture supernatants, independently of de novo synthesis of virus progeny. This phenomenon was not observed in HCMV-infected fibroblasts and suggested the sequestration and the release of HCMVmore » by epithelial cells. This hypothesis was supported by confocal and electron microscopy analyses. The sequestration and progressive release of HCMV by kidney and mammary epithelial cells may play an important role in the excretion of the virus in urine and breast milk and may thereby contribute to HCMV transmission. - Highlights: • Primary renal and mammary epithelial cells are permissive to HCMV infection. • HCMV is sequestered by epithelial cells and this phenomenon does not require viral replication. • HCMV sequestration by epithelial cells is reduced by antibodies and IFN-γ.« less