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Title: On the galaxy–halo connection in the EAGLE simulation

Abstract

Empirical models of galaxy formation require assumptions about the correlations between galaxy and halo properties. These may be calibrated against observations or inferred from physical models such as hydrodynamical simulations. In this Letter, we use the EAGLE simulation to investigate the correlation of galaxy size with halo properties. We motivate this analysis by noting that the common assumption of angular momentum partition between baryons and dark matter in rotationally supported galaxies overpredicts both the spread in the stellar mass–size relation and the anticorrelation of size and velocity residuals, indicating a problem with the galaxy–halo connection it implies. We find the EAGLE galaxy population to perform significantly better on both statistics, and trace this success to the weakness of the correlations of galaxy size with halo mass, concentration and spin at fixed stellar mass. Here by, using these correlations in empirical models will enable fine-grained aspects of galaxy scalings to be matched.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [1]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]
  1. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  2. Univ. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
  3. Liverpool John Moores Univ., Liverpool (United Kingdom)
  4. Leiden Univ., Leiden (The Netherlands)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1407427
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 471; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1745-3925
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; galaxies: formation; galaxies: fundamental parameters; galaxies: haloes; galaxies: kinematics and dynamics; galaxies: statistics; dark matter

Citation Formats

Desmond, Harry, Mao, Yao -Yuan, Wechsler, Risa H., Crain, Robert A., and Schaye, Joop. On the galaxy–halo connection in the EAGLE simulation. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1093/mnrasl/slx093.
Desmond, Harry, Mao, Yao -Yuan, Wechsler, Risa H., Crain, Robert A., & Schaye, Joop. On the galaxy–halo connection in the EAGLE simulation. United States. doi:10.1093/mnrasl/slx093.
Desmond, Harry, Mao, Yao -Yuan, Wechsler, Risa H., Crain, Robert A., and Schaye, Joop. 2017. "On the galaxy–halo connection in the EAGLE simulation". United States. doi:10.1093/mnrasl/slx093.
@article{osti_1407427,
title = {On the galaxy–halo connection in the EAGLE simulation},
author = {Desmond, Harry and Mao, Yao -Yuan and Wechsler, Risa H. and Crain, Robert A. and Schaye, Joop},
abstractNote = {Empirical models of galaxy formation require assumptions about the correlations between galaxy and halo properties. These may be calibrated against observations or inferred from physical models such as hydrodynamical simulations. In this Letter, we use the EAGLE simulation to investigate the correlation of galaxy size with halo properties. We motivate this analysis by noting that the common assumption of angular momentum partition between baryons and dark matter in rotationally supported galaxies overpredicts both the spread in the stellar mass–size relation and the anticorrelation of size and velocity residuals, indicating a problem with the galaxy–halo connection it implies. We find the EAGLE galaxy population to perform significantly better on both statistics, and trace this success to the weakness of the correlations of galaxy size with halo mass, concentration and spin at fixed stellar mass. Here by, using these correlations in empirical models will enable fine-grained aspects of galaxy scalings to be matched.},
doi = {10.1093/mnrasl/slx093},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters},
number = 1,
volume = 471,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 6
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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  • Empirical models of galaxy formation require assumptions about the correlations between galaxy and halo properties. These may be calibrated against observations or inferred from physical models such as hydrodynamical simulations. In this Letter, we use the EAGLE simulation to investigate the correlation of galaxy size with halo properties. We motivate this analysis by noting that the common assumption of angular momentum partition between baryons and dark matter in rotationally supported galaxies overpredicts both the spread in the stellar mass-size relation and the anticorrelation of size and velocity residuals, indicating a problem with the galaxy-halo connection it implies. We find themore » EAGLE galaxy population to perform significantly better on both statistics, and trace this success to the weakness of the correlations of galaxy size with halo mass, concentration and spin at fixed stellar mass. Using these correlations in empirical models will enable fine-grained aspects of galaxy scalings to be matched.« less
  • Empirical methods for connecting galaxies to their dark matter halos have become essential for interpreting measurements of the spatial statistics of galaxies. In this work, we present a novel approach for parameterizing the degree of concentration dependence in the abundance matching method. Furthermore, this new parameterization provides a smooth interpolation between two commonly used matching proxies: the peak halo mass and the peak halo maximal circular velocity. This parameterization controls the amount of dependence of galaxy luminosity on halo concentration at a fixed halo mass. Effectively this interpolation scheme enables abundance matching models to have adjustable assembly bias in the resulting galaxy catalogs. With the newmore » $$400\,\mathrm{Mpc}\,{h}^{-1}$$ DarkSky Simulation, whose larger volume provides lower sample variance, we further show that low-redshift two-point clustering and satellite fraction measurements from SDSS can already provide a joint constraint on this concentration dependence and the scatter within the abundance matching framework.« less
  • The early universe hosted a large population of low-mass virialized 'minihalos', that were not massive enough to form stars on their own. While most minihalos were photoevaporated by ionizing photons from star-forming galaxies, these galaxies also drove large outflows, which in some cases would have reached the minihalos in advance of ionization fronts. In the previous papers in this series, we carried out high-resolution, three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement simulations of outflow-minihalo interactions that included non-equilibrium chemistry, radiative cooling, and turbulent mixing. We found that, for a fiducial set of parameters, minihalos were transformed into dense, chemically homogenous stellar clusters. Heremore » we conduct a suite of simulations that follow these interactions over a wide range of parameters including minihalo mass, minihalo formation redshift, outflow energy, outflow redshift, distance, concentration, and spin. In almost all cases, the shocked minihalos form molecules through non-equilibrium reactions and then cool rapidly to become compact, chemically homogenous stellar clusters. Furthermore, we show that the unique properties of these clusters make them a prime target for direct study with the next generation of telescopes, and that there are many reasons to suspect that their low-redshift counterparts are the observed population of halo globular clusters.« less
  • We infer the local stellar-to-halo/subhalo mass relations (MRs) for central and satellite galaxies separately. Our statistical method is an extension of the abundance matching, halo occupation distribution, and conditional stellar mass function formalisms. We constrain the model using several combinations of observational data, consisting of the total galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF), its decomposition into centrals and satellites, and the projected two-point correlation functions (2PCFs) measured in different stellar mass (M{sub *}) bins. In addition, we use the {Lambda}CDM halo and subhalo mass functions. The differences among the resulting MRs are within the model-fit uncertainties (which are very small, smallermore » than the intrinsic scatter between galaxy and halo mass), no matter what combination of data are used. This shows that matching abundances or occupational numbers is equivalent, and that the GSMFs and 2PCFs are tightly connected. We also constrain the values of the intrinsic scatter around the central-halo (CH) and satellite-subhalo (SS) MRs assuming them to be constant: {sigma}{sub c} = 0.168 {+-} 0.051 dex and {sigma}{sub s} = 0.172 {+-} 0.057 dex, respectively. The CH and SS MRs are actually different, in particular when we take the subhalo mass at the present-day epoch instead of at their accretion time. When using the MRs for studying the satellite population (e.g., in the Milky Way, MW), the SS MR should be chosen instead of the average one. Our model allows one to calculate several population statistics. We find that the central galaxy M{sub *} is not on average within the mass distribution of the most massive satellite, even for cluster-sized halos, i.e., centrals are not a mere realization of the high end of the satellite mass function; however for >3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} M{sub Sun} halos, {approx}15% of centrals could be. We also find that the probabilities of MW-sized halos of having N Magellanic Cloud (MC) sized satellites agree well with observational measures; for a halo mass of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }, the probability to have two MCs is 5.4%, but if we exclude those systems with satellites larger than the MCs, then the probability decreases to <2.2%.« less
  • Nearly 20% of short gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) have no observed host galaxies. Combining this finding with constraints on galaxies' dark matter halo potential wells gives strong limits on the natal kick velocity distribution for sGRB progenitors. For the best-fitting velocity distribution, one in five sGRB progenitors receives a natal kick above 150 km s{sup –1}, consistent with merging neutron star models but not with merging white dwarf binary models. This progenitor model constraint is robust to a wide variety of systematic uncertainties, including the sGRB progenitor time-delay model, the Swift redshift sensitivity, and the shape of the natal kick velocitymore » distribution. We also use constraints on the galaxy-halo connection to determine the host halo and host galaxy demographics for sGRBs, which match extremely well with available data. Most sGRBs are expected to occur in halos near 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉} and in galaxies near 5 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} (L {sub *}); unobserved faint and high-redshift host galaxies contribute a small minority of the observed hostless sGRB fraction. We find that sGRB redshift distributions and host galaxy stellar masses weakly constrain the progenitor time-delay model; the active versus passive fraction of sGRB host galaxies may offer a stronger constraint. Finally, we discuss how searches for gravitational wave optical counterparts in the local universe can reduce follow-up times using these findings.« less