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Title: Conversion of Nuclear Waste to Molten Glass: Cold-Cap Reactions in Crucible Tests

Abstract

The feed-to-glass conversion, which comprises complex chemical reactions and phase transitions, occurs in the cold-cap zone during nuclear waste vitrification. Knowledge of the chemistry and physics of feed-to-glass conversion will help us control the conversion path by changing the melter feed makeup to maximize the glass production rate. To investigate the conversion process, we analyzed heat-treated samples of a simulated high-level waste feed using X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis – wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, leaching tests, and residual anion analysis. Feed dehydration, gas evolution, and borate phase formation occurred at temperatures below 700 °C before the emerging glass-forming melt was completely connected. Above 800 °C, intermediate aluminosilicate phases and quartz particles were gradually dissolving in the continuous borosilicate melt, which expanded into transient foam. Knowledge of the chemistry and physics of feed-to-glass conversion will help us control the conversion path by changing the melter feed makeup to maximize the glass production rate.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];
  1. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99352
  2. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland Washington 99352
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US), Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1406824
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-115889
Journal ID: ISSN 0002-7820; 48708; 830403000
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of the American Ceramic Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 99; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 0002-7820
Publisher:
American Ceramic Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
Cold-cap; feed reactions; waste glass; Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory

Citation Formats

Xu, Kai, Hrma, Pavel, Rice, Jarrett A., Schweiger, Michael J., Riley, Brian J., Overman, Nicole R., Kruger, Albert A., and Vance, E. Conversion of Nuclear Waste to Molten Glass: Cold-Cap Reactions in Crucible Tests. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1111/jace.14310.
Xu, Kai, Hrma, Pavel, Rice, Jarrett A., Schweiger, Michael J., Riley, Brian J., Overman, Nicole R., Kruger, Albert A., & Vance, E. Conversion of Nuclear Waste to Molten Glass: Cold-Cap Reactions in Crucible Tests. United States. doi:10.1111/jace.14310.
Xu, Kai, Hrma, Pavel, Rice, Jarrett A., Schweiger, Michael J., Riley, Brian J., Overman, Nicole R., Kruger, Albert A., and Vance, E. Mon . "Conversion of Nuclear Waste to Molten Glass: Cold-Cap Reactions in Crucible Tests". United States. doi:10.1111/jace.14310.
@article{osti_1406824,
title = {Conversion of Nuclear Waste to Molten Glass: Cold-Cap Reactions in Crucible Tests},
author = {Xu, Kai and Hrma, Pavel and Rice, Jarrett A. and Schweiger, Michael J. and Riley, Brian J. and Overman, Nicole R. and Kruger, Albert A. and Vance, E.},
abstractNote = {The feed-to-glass conversion, which comprises complex chemical reactions and phase transitions, occurs in the cold-cap zone during nuclear waste vitrification. Knowledge of the chemistry and physics of feed-to-glass conversion will help us control the conversion path by changing the melter feed makeup to maximize the glass production rate. To investigate the conversion process, we analyzed heat-treated samples of a simulated high-level waste feed using X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis – wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, leaching tests, and residual anion analysis. Feed dehydration, gas evolution, and borate phase formation occurred at temperatures below 700 °C before the emerging glass-forming melt was completely connected. Above 800 °C, intermediate aluminosilicate phases and quartz particles were gradually dissolving in the continuous borosilicate melt, which expanded into transient foam. Knowledge of the chemistry and physics of feed-to-glass conversion will help us control the conversion path by changing the melter feed makeup to maximize the glass production rate.},
doi = {10.1111/jace.14310},
journal = {Journal of the American Ceramic Society},
issn = {0002-7820},
number = 9,
volume = 99,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {5}
}