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Title: Interpretation of Tracer Experiments on Inverted Five-spot Well-patterns within the Western Half of the Farnsworth Unit Oil Field

Abstract

The Southwest Carbon Partnership (SWP), one of the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships, is currently working to demonstrate the utilization and storage of CO 2 in the Farnsworth Unit (FWU) Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) site under the final development phase of this U.S. DOE initiative. A component of the research is to use fluid tracers to understand the multifluid flow patterns that develop between injection and production wells via collected field data and supporting numerical reservoir models. The FWU, located in the Anadarko Basin, Ochiltree County, Texas, and being operated by Chaparral Energy, is a mature EOR water-flood field, which is currently being converted to a CO 2 flow, with inverted 5-spot patterns transitioning from pure water to alternating CO 2 and water floods (i.e., water alternating gas (WAG)) at an approximate rate of one every 6 to 10 months. The SWP tracer program is conducting a suite of tracer injections into the active 5-spot patterns at the FWU. Tracers have been selected to be nonreactive and either principally soluble in CO 2 (gas soluble) or water (aqueous soluble). In addition to characterizing the multifluid flow behaviour within reservoir, the gas and aqueous tracersmore » have roles in detecting any leakage from the reservoir. A total of seven unique perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) compounds make up the suite of gas soluble tracers and eight unique naphthalene sulfonate tracer (NPT) compounds comprise the aqueous soluble tracers. Lastly, all selected tracers are significantly detectable below the parts per billion concentrations, allowing for high resolution for the inter-well tests at relatively low injection volumes.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [2];  [3];  [3]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  2. Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Energy & Geosciences Inst.
  3. New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM (United States). Petroleum Recovery Research Center
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1406776
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-121318
Journal ID: ISSN 1876-6102; AA7040000
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830; FC26-05NT42591
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Energy Procedia
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 114; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 1876-6102
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; enhanced oil recovery; tracer experiments; numerical simulation; faulted reservoir; Farnsworth Unit

Citation Formats

White, Mark D., Esser, R. P., McPherson, B. P., Balch, R. S., Liu, N., Rose, P. E., Garcia, L., and Ampomah, W. Interpretation of Tracer Experiments on Inverted Five-spot Well-patterns within the Western Half of the Farnsworth Unit Oil Field. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.1849.
White, Mark D., Esser, R. P., McPherson, B. P., Balch, R. S., Liu, N., Rose, P. E., Garcia, L., & Ampomah, W. Interpretation of Tracer Experiments on Inverted Five-spot Well-patterns within the Western Half of the Farnsworth Unit Oil Field. United States. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.1849.
White, Mark D., Esser, R. P., McPherson, B. P., Balch, R. S., Liu, N., Rose, P. E., Garcia, L., and Ampomah, W. Sat . "Interpretation of Tracer Experiments on Inverted Five-spot Well-patterns within the Western Half of the Farnsworth Unit Oil Field". United States. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.1849. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1406776.
@article{osti_1406776,
title = {Interpretation of Tracer Experiments on Inverted Five-spot Well-patterns within the Western Half of the Farnsworth Unit Oil Field},
author = {White, Mark D. and Esser, R. P. and McPherson, B. P. and Balch, R. S. and Liu, N. and Rose, P. E. and Garcia, L. and Ampomah, W.},
abstractNote = {The Southwest Carbon Partnership (SWP), one of the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships, is currently working to demonstrate the utilization and storage of CO2 in the Farnsworth Unit (FWU) Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) site under the final development phase of this U.S. DOE initiative. A component of the research is to use fluid tracers to understand the multifluid flow patterns that develop between injection and production wells via collected field data and supporting numerical reservoir models. The FWU, located in the Anadarko Basin, Ochiltree County, Texas, and being operated by Chaparral Energy, is a mature EOR water-flood field, which is currently being converted to a CO2 flow, with inverted 5-spot patterns transitioning from pure water to alternating CO2 and water floods (i.e., water alternating gas (WAG)) at an approximate rate of one every 6 to 10 months. The SWP tracer program is conducting a suite of tracer injections into the active 5-spot patterns at the FWU. Tracers have been selected to be nonreactive and either principally soluble in CO2 (gas soluble) or water (aqueous soluble). In addition to characterizing the multifluid flow behaviour within reservoir, the gas and aqueous tracers have roles in detecting any leakage from the reservoir. A total of seven unique perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) compounds make up the suite of gas soluble tracers and eight unique naphthalene sulfonate tracer (NPT) compounds comprise the aqueous soluble tracers. Lastly, all selected tracers are significantly detectable below the parts per billion concentrations, allowing for high resolution for the inter-well tests at relatively low injection volumes.},
doi = {10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.1849},
journal = {Energy Procedia},
number = C,
volume = 114,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Sat Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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  • Numerical simulation is an invaluable analytical tool for scientists and engineers in making predictions about of the fate of carbon dioxide injected into deep geologic formations for long-term storage. Current numerical simulators for assessing storage in deep saline formations have capabilities for modeling strongly coupled processes involving multifluid flow, heat transfer, chemistry, and rock mechanics in geologic media. Except for moderate pressure conditions, numerical simulators for deep saline formations only require the tracking of two immiscible phases and a limited number of phase components, beyond those comprising the geochemical reactive system. The requirements for numerically simulating the utilization and storagemore » of carbon dioxide in partially depleted petroleum reservoirs are more numerous than those for deep saline formations. The minimum number of immiscible phases increases to three, the number of phase components may easily increase fourfold, and the coupled processes of heat transfer, geochemistry, and geomechanics remain. Public and scientific confidence in the ability of numerical simulators used for carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline formations has advanced via a natural progression of the simulators being proven against benchmark problems, code comparisons, laboratory-scale experiments, pilot-scale injections, and commercial-scale injections. This paper describes a new numerical simulator for the scientific investigation of carbon dioxide utilization and storage in partially depleted petroleum reservoirs, with an emphasis on its unique features for scientific investigations; and documents the numerical simulation of the utilization of carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery in the western section of the Farnsworth Unit and represents an early stage in the progression of numerical simulators for carbon utilization and storage in depleted oil reservoirs.« less
  • This paper describes the use of a black-oil, thermal simulator to compare steamflood development using five-spot and inverted nine-spot patterns. The input data selected were representative of a homogeneous heavy-oil reservoir. This study considered three different development strategies: conventional pattern steamflooding, pattern steamflooding with infill drilling, and steamflooding with infill drilling and pattern realignment. Comparison of pattern steamfloods indicates that a close well spacing (1.25 acres/well (0.5 ha/well), the inverted nine-spot recovers more oil than the five-spot. Steam breakthrough and oil production are accelerated for the nine-spot relative to the five-spot pattern. At larger well spacing, however, oil recovery frommore » the five-spot pattern exceeds that from the nine-spot. Conversion of a five-spot pattern to an inverted nine-spot increases and accelerates oil recovery. Processing of multiple sands will improve the effectiveness of this infill drilling strategy. A development strategy using inverted nine-spot patterns on large well spacing (2.5 to 5.0 acres/well (1 to2 ha/well)) that yields improved oil recovery compared with conventional five-spot steamflood development was identified. This strategy uses infill drilling and pattern realignment to improve steamflood performance.« less
  • This article reports on experimental work performed by L.G. Guckert at the Pennsylvania State University. Primary consideration is given to the ratio of injection rate at the corner wells to edge wells required for maximum breakthrough sweep efficiency. Some of Muskat's observations are also mentioned. It was determined that as the injection rate ratio increased, the breakthrough sweep efficiency increased rapidly to a maximum, and then decreased slowly. This model study revealed that the ratio of injection rate required to give maximum breakthrough sweep efficiency at a mobility ratio of unity should be approximately 4 : 1. Muskat determined analyticallymore » that the injection rate ratio should be approximately 10.6. A mobility ratio of 2.0 decreased the value of the breakthrough sweep efficiency at each injection rate ratio studied.« less
  • Because of the geometry of the 5-spot pattern it would be assumed that the normal and inverted patterns would give the same breakthrough sweep efficiency regardless of the mobility ratio. A series of tests were run to determine if the breakthrough sweep efficiencies of the normal and inverted patterns were equal at the same mobility ratio. The tests were run over a range of mobility ratios from 0.25 to 4.0. Lower breakthrough sweep efficiencies were observed at the unfavorable mobility ratios (M 1.0) than at the favorable mobility ratios (M 1.0). At a mobility of 4.0, the figures, as stated,more » were 64.6% and 63% for the normal and inverted patterns respectively. An increase of 25% in sweep efficiency was observed for a change in mobility ratio from 0.25 to 4.0. Thus, over the mobility-ratio range studied, the normal and inverted patterns gave the same behavior up to the point of displacing phase breakthrough. A table lists the pertinent data for this model.« less