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Title: Tc removal from the waste treatment and immobilization plant low-activity waste vitrification off-gas recycle

Abstract

Vitrification of Low Activity Waste in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant generates a condensate stream from the off-gas processes. Components in this stream are partially volatile and accumulate to high concentrations through recycling, which impacts the waste glass loading and facility throughput. The primary radionuclide that vaporizes and accumulates in the stream is 99Tc. This program is investigating Tc removal via reductive precipitation with stannous chloride to examine the potential for diverting this stream to an alternate disposition path. As a result, research has shown stannous chloride to be effective, and this paper describes results of recent experiments performed to further mature the technology.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Savannah River National Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1406492
Report Number(s):
SRNL-STI-2016-00389
Journal ID: ISSN 0149-6395
Grant/Contract Number:
AC09-08SR22470
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Separation Science and Technology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Separation Science and Technology; Journal ID: ISSN 0149-6395
Publisher:
Taylor & Francis
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; decontamination; stannous chloride; technetium; WTP

Citation Formats

Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L., McCabe, Daniel J., and Nash, Charles A.. Tc removal from the waste treatment and immobilization plant low-activity waste vitrification off-gas recycle. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1080/01496395.2017.1302952.
Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L., McCabe, Daniel J., & Nash, Charles A.. Tc removal from the waste treatment and immobilization plant low-activity waste vitrification off-gas recycle. United States. doi:10.1080/01496395.2017.1302952.
Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L., McCabe, Daniel J., and Nash, Charles A.. Thu . "Tc removal from the waste treatment and immobilization plant low-activity waste vitrification off-gas recycle". United States. doi:10.1080/01496395.2017.1302952. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1406492.
@article{osti_1406492,
title = {Tc removal from the waste treatment and immobilization plant low-activity waste vitrification off-gas recycle},
author = {Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L. and McCabe, Daniel J. and Nash, Charles A.},
abstractNote = {Vitrification of Low Activity Waste in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant generates a condensate stream from the off-gas processes. Components in this stream are partially volatile and accumulate to high concentrations through recycling, which impacts the waste glass loading and facility throughput. The primary radionuclide that vaporizes and accumulates in the stream is 99Tc. This program is investigating Tc removal via reductive precipitation with stannous chloride to examine the potential for diverting this stream to an alternate disposition path. As a result, research has shown stannous chloride to be effective, and this paper describes results of recent experiments performed to further mature the technology.},
doi = {10.1080/01496395.2017.1302952},
journal = {Separation Science and Technology},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Mar 16 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Thu Mar 16 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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  • The Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the offgas system. The plan for disposition of this stream during baseline operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. The primary reason to recycle this stream is so that the semi-volatile 99Tc isotope eventually becomes incorporated into the glass. This stream also contains non-radioactive salt components that are problematic in the melter,more » so diversion of this stream to another process would eliminate recycling of these salts and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. This diversion from recycling this stream within WTP would have the effect of decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The concept being tested here involves removing the 99Tc so that the decontaminated aqueous stream, with the problematic salts, can be disposed elsewhere.« less
  • The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flow was designed to pre-treat feed from the Hanford tank farms, separate it into a High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) fraction and vitrify each fraction in separate facilities. Vitrification of the waste generates an aqueous condensate stream from the off-gas processes. This stream originates from two off-gas treatment unit operations, the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrospray Precipitator (WESP). Currently, the baseline plan for disposition of the stream from the LAW melter is to recycle it to the Pretreatment facility where it gets evaporated and processedmore » into the LAW melter again. If the Pretreatment facility is not available, the baseline disposition pathway is not viable. Additionally, some components in the stream are volatile at melter temperatures, thereby accumulating to high concentrations in the scrubbed stream. It would be highly beneficial to divert this stream to an alternate disposition path to alleviate the close-coupled operation of the LAW vitrification and Pretreatment facilities, and to improve long-term throughput and efficiency of the WTP system. In order to determine an alternate disposition path for the LAW SBS/WESP Recycle stream, a range of options are being studied. A simulant of the LAW Off-Gas Condensate was developed, based on the projected composition of this stream, and comparison with pilot-scale testing. The primary radionuclide that vaporizes and accumulates in the stream is Tc-99, but small amounts of several other radionuclides are also projected to be present in this stream. The processes being investigated for managing this stream includes evaporation and radionuclide removal via precipitation and adsorption. During evaporation, it is of interest to investigate the formation of insoluble solids to avoid scaling and plugging of equipment. Key parameters for radionuclide removal include identifying effective precipitation or ion adsorption chemicals, solid-liquid separation methods, and achievable decontamination factors. Results of the radionuclide removal testing indicate that the radionuclides, including Tc-99, can be removed with inorganic sorbents and precipitating agents. Evaporation test results indicate that the simulant can be evaporated to fairly high concentration prior to formation of appreciable solids, but corrosion has not yet been examined.« less
  • The U.S Department of Energy Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) is constructing a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) for the treatment and vitrification of underground tank wastes stored at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The WTP comprises four major facilities: a pretreatment facility to separate the tank waste into high level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) process streams, a HLW vitrification facility to immobilize the HLW fraction; a LAW vitrification facility to immobilize the LAW fraction, and an analytical laboratory to support the operations of all four treatment facilities. DOE has established strategic objectives to optimize themore » performance of the WTP facilities and the LAW and HLW waste forms to reduce the overall schedule and cost for treatment and vitrification of the Hanford tank wastes. This strategy has been implemented by establishing performance expectations in the WTP contract for the facilities and waste forms. In addition, DOE, as owner-operator of the WTP facilities, continues to evaluate 1) the design, to determine the potential for performance above the requirements specified in the WTP contract; and 2) improvements in production of the LAW and HLW waste forms. This paper reports recent progress directed at improving production of the LAW waste form. DOE’s initial assessment, which is based on the work reported in this paper, is that the capacity of the WTP LAW vitrification facility can be increased by a factor of 2 to 4 with a combination of revised glass formulations, modest increases in melter glass operating temperatures, and a second-generation LAW melter with a larger surface area. Implementing these improvements in the LAW waste immobilization capability can benefit the LAW treatment mission by reducing both processing time and cost.« less
  • The U.S Department of Energy Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) is constructing a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) for the treatment and vitrification of underground tank wastes stored at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The WTP comprises four major facilities: a pretreatment facility to separate the tank waste into high level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) process streams, a HLW vitrification facility to immobilize the HLW fraction; a LAW vitrification facility to immobilize the LAW fraction, and an analytical laboratory to support the operations of all four treatment facilities. DOE has established strategic objectives to optimize themore » performance of the WTP facilities and the LAW and HLW waste forms to reduce the overall schedule and cost for treatment and vitrification of the Hanford tank wastes. This strategy has been implemented by establishing performance expectations in the WTP contract for the facilities and waste forms. In addition, DOE, as owner-operator of the WTP facilities, continues to evaluate 1) the design, to determine the potential for performance above the requirements specified in the WTP contract; and 2) improvements in production of the LAW and HLW waste forms. This paper reports recent progress directed at improving production of the LAW waste form. DOE's initial assessment, which is based on the work reported in this paper, is that the treatment rate of the WTP LAW vitrification facility can be increased by a factor of 2 to 4 with a combination of revised glass formulations, modest increases in melter glass operating temperatures, and a second-generation LAW melter with a larger surface area. Implementing these improvements in the LAW waste immobilization capability can benefit the LAW treatment mission by reducing the cost of waste treatment. (authors)« less