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Title: Additive Manufacturing of Fuel Injectors

Abstract

Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D-printing, has been shifting from a novelty prototyping paradigm to a legitimate manufacturing tool capable of creating components for highly complex engineered products. An emerging AM technology for producing metal parts is the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process; however, industry manufacturing specifications and component design practices for L-PBF have not yet been established. Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), an industrial gas turbine manufacturer, has been evaluating AM technology for development and production applications with the desire to enable accelerated product development cycle times, overall turbine efficiency improvements, and supply chain flexibility relative to conventional manufacturing processes (casting, brazing, welding). Accordingly, Solar teamed with EWI on a joint two-and-a-half-year project with the goal of developing a production L-PBF AM process capable of consistently producing high-nickel alloy material suitable for high temperature gas turbine engine fuel injector components. The project plan tasks were designed to understand the interaction of the process variables and their combined impact on the resultant AM material quality. The composition of the high-nickel alloy powders selected for this program met the conventional cast Hastelloy X compositional limits and were commercially available in different particle size distributions (PSD) from two suppliers. Solar producedmore » all the test articles and both EWI and Solar shared responsibility for analyzing them. The effects of powder metal input stock, laser parameters, heat treatments, and post-finishing methods were evaluated. This process knowledge was then used to generate tensile, fatigue, and creep material properties data curves suitable for component design activities. The key process controls for ensuring consistent material properties were documented in AM powder and process specifications. The basic components of the project were: • Powder metal input stock: Powder characterization, dimensional accuracy, metallurgical characterization, and mechanical properties evaluation. • Process parameters: Laser parameter effects, post-printing heat-treatment development, mechanical properties evaluation, and post-finishing technique. • Material design curves: Room and elevated temperature tensiles, low cycle fatigue, and creep rupture properties curves generated. • AM specifications: Key metal powder characteristics, laser parameters, and heat-treatment controls identified.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)
  2. Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE)
OSTI Identifier:
1406179
Report Number(s):
55232GTH
DOE Contract Number:
FE0023974
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 42 ENGINEERING; 96 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND PRESERVATION; AM; Additive Manufacturing; 3D printing; Hastelloy X; high Nickel; EWI; Edison Welding Institute; Solar Turbines; L-PBF; laser powder bed fusion; laser process parameters; metallurgical characterization; gas turbine fuel injectors; heat treatment; computed tomography; radiographic testing; low cycle fatigue; tensile; high cycle fatigue

Citation Formats

Sadek Tadros, Dr. Alber Alphonse, Ritter, Dr. George W., Drews, Charles Donald, and Ryan, Daniel. Additive Manufacturing of Fuel Injectors. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1406179.
Sadek Tadros, Dr. Alber Alphonse, Ritter, Dr. George W., Drews, Charles Donald, & Ryan, Daniel. Additive Manufacturing of Fuel Injectors. United States. doi:10.2172/1406179.
Sadek Tadros, Dr. Alber Alphonse, Ritter, Dr. George W., Drews, Charles Donald, and Ryan, Daniel. Tue . "Additive Manufacturing of Fuel Injectors". United States. doi:10.2172/1406179. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1406179.
@article{osti_1406179,
title = {Additive Manufacturing of Fuel Injectors},
author = {Sadek Tadros, Dr. Alber Alphonse and Ritter, Dr. George W. and Drews, Charles Donald and Ryan, Daniel},
abstractNote = {Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D-printing, has been shifting from a novelty prototyping paradigm to a legitimate manufacturing tool capable of creating components for highly complex engineered products. An emerging AM technology for producing metal parts is the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process; however, industry manufacturing specifications and component design practices for L-PBF have not yet been established. Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), an industrial gas turbine manufacturer, has been evaluating AM technology for development and production applications with the desire to enable accelerated product development cycle times, overall turbine efficiency improvements, and supply chain flexibility relative to conventional manufacturing processes (casting, brazing, welding). Accordingly, Solar teamed with EWI on a joint two-and-a-half-year project with the goal of developing a production L-PBF AM process capable of consistently producing high-nickel alloy material suitable for high temperature gas turbine engine fuel injector components. The project plan tasks were designed to understand the interaction of the process variables and their combined impact on the resultant AM material quality. The composition of the high-nickel alloy powders selected for this program met the conventional cast Hastelloy X compositional limits and were commercially available in different particle size distributions (PSD) from two suppliers. Solar produced all the test articles and both EWI and Solar shared responsibility for analyzing them. The effects of powder metal input stock, laser parameters, heat treatments, and post-finishing methods were evaluated. This process knowledge was then used to generate tensile, fatigue, and creep material properties data curves suitable for component design activities. The key process controls for ensuring consistent material properties were documented in AM powder and process specifications. The basic components of the project were: • Powder metal input stock: Powder characterization, dimensional accuracy, metallurgical characterization, and mechanical properties evaluation. • Process parameters: Laser parameter effects, post-printing heat-treatment development, mechanical properties evaluation, and post-finishing technique. • Material design curves: Room and elevated temperature tensiles, low cycle fatigue, and creep rupture properties curves generated. • AM specifications: Key metal powder characteristics, laser parameters, and heat-treatment controls identified.},
doi = {10.2172/1406179},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Oct 24 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Tue Oct 24 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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