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Title: Transient Negative Optical Nonlinearity of Indium Oxide Nanorod Arrays in the Full-Visible Range

Abstract

Dynamic control of the optical response of materials at visible wavelengths is key to future metamaterials and photonic integrated circuits. Here we demonstrate large amplitude, negative optical nonlinearity (Δ n from -0.05 to -0.09) of indium oxide nanorod arrays in the full-visible range. We experimentally quantify and theoretically calculate the optical nonlinearity, which arises from the modifications of interband optical transitions. Furthermore, the approach towards negative optical nonlinearity can be generalized to other transparent semiconductors and opens door to reconfigurable, sub-wavelength optical components.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
  2. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)
  3. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States); Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22), Scientific User Facilities Division
OSTI Identifier:
1406113
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
ACS Photonics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 4; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 2330-4022
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; negative optical nonlinearity; transient; full-visible range; indium oxide; transparent semiconducting oxide; ultrafast

Citation Formats

Guo, Peijun, Chang, Robert P. H., and Schaller, Richard D. Transient Negative Optical Nonlinearity of Indium Oxide Nanorod Arrays in the Full-Visible Range. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1021/acsphotonics.7b00278.
Guo, Peijun, Chang, Robert P. H., & Schaller, Richard D. Transient Negative Optical Nonlinearity of Indium Oxide Nanorod Arrays in the Full-Visible Range. United States. doi:10.1021/acsphotonics.7b00278.
Guo, Peijun, Chang, Robert P. H., and Schaller, Richard D. Fri . "Transient Negative Optical Nonlinearity of Indium Oxide Nanorod Arrays in the Full-Visible Range". United States. doi:10.1021/acsphotonics.7b00278.
@article{osti_1406113,
title = {Transient Negative Optical Nonlinearity of Indium Oxide Nanorod Arrays in the Full-Visible Range},
author = {Guo, Peijun and Chang, Robert P. H. and Schaller, Richard D.},
abstractNote = {Dynamic control of the optical response of materials at visible wavelengths is key to future metamaterials and photonic integrated circuits. Here we demonstrate large amplitude, negative optical nonlinearity (Δn from -0.05 to -0.09) of indium oxide nanorod arrays in the full-visible range. We experimentally quantify and theoretically calculate the optical nonlinearity, which arises from the modifications of interband optical transitions. Furthermore, the approach towards negative optical nonlinearity can be generalized to other transparent semiconductors and opens door to reconfigurable, sub-wavelength optical components.},
doi = {10.1021/acsphotonics.7b00278},
journal = {ACS Photonics},
number = 6,
volume = 4,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jun 09 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Fri Jun 09 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on June 9, 2018
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Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2works
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  • Active control of light is important for photonic integrated circuits, optical switches,. and telecommunications. Coupling light with acoustic vibrations in nanoscale optical resonators offers optical modulation capabilities with high bandwidth and Small footprint Instead of using noble metals, here we introduce indium tin-oxide nanorod arrays (ITO-NRAs) as the operating media;and demonstrate optical modulation covering the visible spectral range (from 360 to 700 nm), with similar to 20 GHz bandwidth through the excitation of coherent acoustic vibrations in ITO-NRAs. This broadband modulation results from the collective optical diffraction by the dielectric ITO-NRAs, and a high differential transmission modulation up to 10%more » is achieved through efficient near-infrared, on-plasmon-resonance pumping. By combining the frequency signatures Of the vibrational modes with finite-element simulations, we,further determine the anisotropic elastic constants for single-crystalline ITO, which are not known-for the bulk phase. Furthermore, this technique to determine elastic constants using Coherent acoustic vibrations of uniform nanostructures can be generalized to the study of other inorganic materials.« less
  • Optical nonlinearity induced by intense optical excitation of mobile electrons in metallic nanostructures can provide dynamic tuning of their electromagnetic response, which is potentially useful for all-optical information processing. Here we report on the sub-picosecond optical nonlinearity of indium tin oxide nanorod arrays (ITO-NRAs) following intraband, on-plasmon-resonance optical pumping, which enables modulation of the full-visible spectrum with large absolute change of transmission, favorable spectral tunability and beam-steering capability. We semi-quantitatively model the permittivity change, whose large amplitude stems from a significant electron redistribution under intraband pumping due to the low electron concentration. Further, we observe a transient response in themore » microsecond regime associated with the slow lattice cooling, which arises from the large aspect-ratio and low thermal conductivity of ITO-NRAs. Finally, our results demonstrate that all-optical control of the visible spectrum can be achieved by using heavily doped wide-bandgap semiconductors in their transparent regime with speed faster than that of noble metals.« less
  • There is currently much discussion within the nanophotonics community regarding the origin of wavelength selective absorption/scattering of light by the resonances in nanorod arrays. Here, we report a study of resonances in ordered indium-tin-oxide nanorod arrays resulting from waveguide-like modes. We find that with only a 2.4% geometrical coverage, micron-length nanorod arrays interact strongly with light across a surprisingly wide band from the visible to the mid-infrared, resulting in less than 10% transmission. Simulations show excellent agreement with our experimental observations. The field profile in the vicinity of the rods obtained from simulations shows that the electric field is mainlymore » localized on the surfaces of the nanorods for all resonances. Based on our analysis, the resonances in the visible are different in character from those in the infrared. When light is incident on the array, part of it propagates in the space between the rods and part of it is guided within the rods. The phase difference (interference) at the ends of the rods forms the basis for the resonances in the visible region. The resonances in the infrared are Fabry-Perot-like resonances involving standing surface waves between the opposing ends of the rods. Simple analytical formulae predict the spectral positions of these resonances. It is suggested that these phenomena can be utilized for wavelength-selective photodetectors, modulators, and nanorod-based solar cells.« less