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Title: Chapter 8: Pyrolysis of Biomass for Aviation Fuel

Abstract

Pyrolysis, the breaking down of organic material using heat and the absence of oxygen, is a method that has been widely researched for the production of liquid fuels. In this chapter, we review the feedstocks typically used for pyrolysis, the properties and the composition of the liquid fraction (termed 'bio-oil') obtained, the studies in which pyrolysis has been used in an attempt to increase the bio-oil yield, and how the bio-oil has been upgraded to fuel-like molecules. We also discuss the viability of pyrolysis to produce jet fuel hydrocarbons.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2]
  1. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  2. Los Alamos National Laboratory
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Bioenergy Technologies Office (EE-3B)
OSTI Identifier:
1405915
Report Number(s):
NREL/CH-5100-65631
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Book
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; pyrolysis; biomass; aviation; jet fuel; catalytic fast pyrolysis

Citation Formats

Robichaud, David J, Jenkins, Rhodri W., and Sutton, Andrew D.. Chapter 8: Pyrolysis of Biomass for Aviation Fuel. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-804568-8.00008-1.
Robichaud, David J, Jenkins, Rhodri W., & Sutton, Andrew D.. Chapter 8: Pyrolysis of Biomass for Aviation Fuel. United States. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-804568-8.00008-1.
Robichaud, David J, Jenkins, Rhodri W., and Sutton, Andrew D.. 2016. "Chapter 8: Pyrolysis of Biomass for Aviation Fuel". United States. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-804568-8.00008-1.
@article{osti_1405915,
title = {Chapter 8: Pyrolysis of Biomass for Aviation Fuel},
author = {Robichaud, David J and Jenkins, Rhodri W. and Sutton, Andrew D.},
abstractNote = {Pyrolysis, the breaking down of organic material using heat and the absence of oxygen, is a method that has been widely researched for the production of liquid fuels. In this chapter, we review the feedstocks typically used for pyrolysis, the properties and the composition of the liquid fraction (termed 'bio-oil') obtained, the studies in which pyrolysis has been used in an attempt to increase the bio-oil yield, and how the bio-oil has been upgraded to fuel-like molecules. We also discuss the viability of pyrolysis to produce jet fuel hydrocarbons.},
doi = {10.1016/B978-0-12-804568-8.00008-1},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}

Book:
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  • Fast pyrolysis is heating on the order of 1000 degrees C/s in the absence of oxygen to 40-600 degrees C, which causes decomposition of the biomass. Liquid product yield from biomass can be as much as 80% of starting dry weight and contains up to 75% of the biomass energy content. Other products are gases, primarily carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane, as well as solid char and ash. Residence time in the reactor is only 0.5-2 s so that relatively small, low-capital-cost reactors can be used. The low capital cost combined with greenhouse gas emission reductions relative to petroleummore » fuels of 50-95% makes pyrolysis an attractive process. The pyrolysis liquids have been investigated as a refinery feedstock and as stand-alone fuels. Utilization of raw pyrolysis oil has proven challenging. The organic fraction is highly corrosive because of its high organic acid content. High water content lowers the net heating value and can increase corrosivity. It can be poorly soluble in petroleum or petroleum products and can readily absorb water. Distillation residues can be as high as 50%, viscosity can be high, oils can exhibit poor stability in storage, and they can contain suspended solids. The ignition quality of raw pyrolysis oils is poor, with cetane number estimates ranging from 0 to 35, but more likely to be in the lower end of that range. While the use of raw pyrolysis oils in certain specific applications with specialized combustion equipment may be possible, raw oils must be significantly upgraded for use in on-highway spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines. Upgrading approaches most often involve catalytic hydrodeoxygenation, one of a class of reactions known as hydrotreating or hydroprocessing. This chapter discusses the properties of raw and upgraded pyrolysis oils, as well as the potential for integrating biomass pyrolysis with a petroleum refinery to significantly reduce the hydroprocessing cost.« less
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  • Lignin is an important component of biomass, and the decomposition of its thermal deconstruction products is important in pyrolysis and gasification. In this chapter, we investigate the unimolecular pyrolysis chemistry through the use of singly and doubly substituted benzene molecules that are model compounds representative of lignin and its primary pyrolysis products. These model compounds are decomposed in a heated micro-reactor, and the products, including radicals and unstable intermediates, are measured using photoionization mass spectrometry and matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy. We show that the unimolecular chemistry can yield insight into the initial decomposition of these species. At pyrolysis and gasificationmore » severities, singly substituted benzenes typically undergo bond scission and elimination reactions to form radicals. Some require radical-driven chain reactions. For doubly substituted benzenes, proximity effects of the substituents can change the reaction pathways.« less
  • No abstract prepared.