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Title: Field Degassing as a New Sampling Method for 14C Analyses in Old Groundwater

Abstract

Radiocarbon ( 14C) activity in groundwater can be used to determine subsurface residence time up to ~40 kyr, providing crucial information on dynamic properties of groundwater and on paleoclimate. However, commonly applied sampling methods for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC- 14C) are prone to low level of modern atmospheric contamination, resulting in underestimation of groundwater ages that cluster around 30–40 kyr. We extract CO 2 gas from groundwater using a device originally developed for studies of noble gas radionuclides. Carbon is collected in the gas phase, eliminating the possibility of fostering microbial activities and aqueous chemical reactions during sample storage. This method collects CO 2- 14C and radiokrypton ( 81Kr and 85Kr) samples simultaneously. The presence of any shorter-lived 85Kr is used to evaluate the degree of atmospheric contamination during sampling or mixing of young groundwater. Most groundwater samples showed lower CO 2- 14C activities than those of DIC- 14C, presumably due to the absence of atmospheric contamination. Samples with 81Kr age exceeding 150 kyr have no detectable CO 2- 14C except where mixing sources of young groundwater is suspected. Furthermore these field data serve as confirmations for the reliability of the newly presented sample collection and CO 2- 14C method,more » and for the outstanding roles of radiokrypton isotopes in characterizing old groundwater.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [1];  [5]
  1. The Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)
  2. Univ. of Bern, Bern (Switzerland)
  3. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)
  4. Geological Survey of Israel, Jerusalem (Israel); Ben Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede Boqer (Israel)
  5. Ben Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede Boqer (Israel)
  6. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Science and Technology of China, Anhui (China)
  7. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Univ. of Science and Technology of China, Anhui (China)
  8. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26); National Science Foundation (NSF); United States - Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1405323
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Radiocarbon
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 2017; Journal ID: ISSN 0033-8222
Publisher:
Cambridge University Press
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Yokochi, Reika, Bernier, Ryan, Purtschert, Roland, Zappala, Jake C., Yechieli, Yoseph, Adar, Eilon, Jiang, Wei, Lu, Zheng -Tian, Mueller, Peter, Olack, Gerard, and Ram, Roi. Field Degassing as a New Sampling Method for 14C Analyses in Old Groundwater. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1017/RDC.2017.64.
Yokochi, Reika, Bernier, Ryan, Purtschert, Roland, Zappala, Jake C., Yechieli, Yoseph, Adar, Eilon, Jiang, Wei, Lu, Zheng -Tian, Mueller, Peter, Olack, Gerard, & Ram, Roi. Field Degassing as a New Sampling Method for 14C Analyses in Old Groundwater. United States. doi:10.1017/RDC.2017.64.
Yokochi, Reika, Bernier, Ryan, Purtschert, Roland, Zappala, Jake C., Yechieli, Yoseph, Adar, Eilon, Jiang, Wei, Lu, Zheng -Tian, Mueller, Peter, Olack, Gerard, and Ram, Roi. Thu . "Field Degassing as a New Sampling Method for 14C Analyses in Old Groundwater". United States. doi:10.1017/RDC.2017.64. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1405323.
@article{osti_1405323,
title = {Field Degassing as a New Sampling Method for 14C Analyses in Old Groundwater},
author = {Yokochi, Reika and Bernier, Ryan and Purtschert, Roland and Zappala, Jake C. and Yechieli, Yoseph and Adar, Eilon and Jiang, Wei and Lu, Zheng -Tian and Mueller, Peter and Olack, Gerard and Ram, Roi},
abstractNote = {Radiocarbon (14C) activity in groundwater can be used to determine subsurface residence time up to ~40 kyr, providing crucial information on dynamic properties of groundwater and on paleoclimate. However, commonly applied sampling methods for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC-14C) are prone to low level of modern atmospheric contamination, resulting in underestimation of groundwater ages that cluster around 30–40 kyr. We extract CO2 gas from groundwater using a device originally developed for studies of noble gas radionuclides. Carbon is collected in the gas phase, eliminating the possibility of fostering microbial activities and aqueous chemical reactions during sample storage. This method collects CO2-14C and radiokrypton (81Kr and85Kr) samples simultaneously. The presence of any shorter-lived 85Kr is used to evaluate the degree of atmospheric contamination during sampling or mixing of young groundwater. Most groundwater samples showed lower CO2-14C activities than those of DIC-14C, presumably due to the absence of atmospheric contamination. Samples with 81Kr age exceeding 150 kyr have no detectable CO2-14C except where mixing sources of young groundwater is suspected. Furthermore these field data serve as confirmations for the reliability of the newly presented sample collection and CO2-14C method, and for the outstanding roles of radiokrypton isotopes in characterizing old groundwater.},
doi = {10.1017/RDC.2017.64},
journal = {Radiocarbon},
number = ,
volume = 2017,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Sep 07 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Thu Sep 07 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

An atom counter for measuring 81Kr and 85Kr in environmental samples
journal, August 2012