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Title: Application of the SHARP Toolkit to Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Challenge Problems

Abstract

The Simulation-based High-efficiency Advanced Reactor Prototyping (SHARP) toolkit is under development by the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. To better understand and exploit the benefits of advanced modeling simulations, the NEAMS Campaign initiated the “Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) Challenge Problems” task, which include the assessment of hot channel factors (HCFs) and the demonstration of zooming capability using the SHARP toolkit. If both challenge problems are resolved through advanced modeling and simulation using the SHARP toolkit, the economic competitiveness of a SFR can be significantly improved. The efforts in the first year of this project focused on the development of computational models, meshes, and coupling procedures for multi-physics calculations using the neutronics (PROTEUS) and thermal-hydraulic (Nek5000) components of the SHARP toolkit, as well as demonstration of the HCF calculation capability for the 100 MWe Advanced Fast Reactor (AFR-100) design. Testing the feasibility of the SHARP zooming capability is planned in FY 2018. The HCFs developed for the earlier SFRs (FFTF, CRBR, and EBR-II) were reviewed, and a subset of these were identified as potential candidates for reduction or elimination through high-fidelity simulations. A one-way offline coupling method wasmore » used to evaluate the HCFs where the neutronics solver PROTEUS computes the power profile based on an assumed temperature, and the computational fluid dynamics solver Nek5000 evaluates the peak temperatures using the neutronics power profile. If the initial temperature profile used in the neutronics calculation is reasonably accurate, the one-way offline method is valid because the neutronics power profile has weak dependence on small temperature variation. In order to get more precise results, the proper temperature profile for initial neutronics calculations was obtained from the STAR-CCM+ calculations. The HCFs of the peak temperatures at cladding outer surface, cladding inner wall surface, and fuel centerline induced by cladding manufacturing tolerance and uncertainties on the cladding, coolant, and fuel properties were evaluated for the AFR-100. Some assessment on the effect of wire wrap configuration and size of the bundle shows that it is practical to use the 7-pin bare rod bundle to calculate the HCFs. The resulting HCFs obtained from the high-fidelity SHARP calculations are generally smaller than those developed for the earlier SFRs because the most uncertainties involved in the modeling and simulations were disappeared. For completeness, additional investigations are planned in FY 2018, which will use random sampling techniques.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE)
OSTI Identifier:
1405071
Report Number(s):
ANL/NE-17/26
139015
DOE Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
21 SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS; SHARP; SFR; Nek5000; PROTEUS

Citation Formats

Shemon, E. R., Yu, Y., and Kim, T. K. Application of the SHARP Toolkit to Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Challenge Problems. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1405071.
Shemon, E. R., Yu, Y., & Kim, T. K. Application of the SHARP Toolkit to Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Challenge Problems. United States. doi:10.2172/1405071.
Shemon, E. R., Yu, Y., and Kim, T. K. 2017. "Application of the SHARP Toolkit to Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Challenge Problems". United States. doi:10.2172/1405071. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1405071.
@article{osti_1405071,
title = {Application of the SHARP Toolkit to Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Challenge Problems},
author = {Shemon, E. R. and Yu, Y. and Kim, T. K.},
abstractNote = {The Simulation-based High-efficiency Advanced Reactor Prototyping (SHARP) toolkit is under development by the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. To better understand and exploit the benefits of advanced modeling simulations, the NEAMS Campaign initiated the “Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) Challenge Problems” task, which include the assessment of hot channel factors (HCFs) and the demonstration of zooming capability using the SHARP toolkit. If both challenge problems are resolved through advanced modeling and simulation using the SHARP toolkit, the economic competitiveness of a SFR can be significantly improved. The efforts in the first year of this project focused on the development of computational models, meshes, and coupling procedures for multi-physics calculations using the neutronics (PROTEUS) and thermal-hydraulic (Nek5000) components of the SHARP toolkit, as well as demonstration of the HCF calculation capability for the 100 MWe Advanced Fast Reactor (AFR-100) design. Testing the feasibility of the SHARP zooming capability is planned in FY 2018. The HCFs developed for the earlier SFRs (FFTF, CRBR, and EBR-II) were reviewed, and a subset of these were identified as potential candidates for reduction or elimination through high-fidelity simulations. A one-way offline coupling method was used to evaluate the HCFs where the neutronics solver PROTEUS computes the power profile based on an assumed temperature, and the computational fluid dynamics solver Nek5000 evaluates the peak temperatures using the neutronics power profile. If the initial temperature profile used in the neutronics calculation is reasonably accurate, the one-way offline method is valid because the neutronics power profile has weak dependence on small temperature variation. In order to get more precise results, the proper temperature profile for initial neutronics calculations was obtained from the STAR-CCM+ calculations. The HCFs of the peak temperatures at cladding outer surface, cladding inner wall surface, and fuel centerline induced by cladding manufacturing tolerance and uncertainties on the cladding, coolant, and fuel properties were evaluated for the AFR-100. Some assessment on the effect of wire wrap configuration and size of the bundle shows that it is practical to use the 7-pin bare rod bundle to calculate the HCFs. The resulting HCFs obtained from the high-fidelity SHARP calculations are generally smaller than those developed for the earlier SFRs because the most uncertainties involved in the modeling and simulations were disappeared. For completeness, additional investigations are planned in FY 2018, which will use random sampling techniques.},
doi = {10.2172/1405071},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 9
}

Technical Report:

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  • No abstract provided.
  • This report proposes adaptation of the previous regulatory gap analysis in Chapter 4 (Reactor) of NUREG 0800, Standard Review Plan (SRP) for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR [Light Water Reactor] Edition. The proposed adaptation would result in a Chapter 4 review plan applicable to certain advanced reactors. This report addresses two technologies: the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) and the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (mHTGR). SRP Chapter 4, which addresses reactor components, was selected for adaptation because of the possible significant differences in advanced non-light water reactor (non-LWR) technologies compared with the current LWR-basedmore » description in Chapter 4. SFR and mHTGR technologies were chosen for this gap analysis because of their diverse designs and the availability of significant historical design detail.« less
  • The project “Modeling and Validation of Sodium Plugging for Heat Exchangers in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Systems” was conducted jointly by Westinghouse Electric Company (Westinghouse) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), over the period October 1, 2013- March 31, 2016. The project’s motivation was the need to provide designers of Sodium Fast Reactors (SFRs) with a validated, state-of-the-art computational tool for the prediction of sodium oxide (Na 2O) deposition in small-diameter sodium heat exchanger (HX) channels, such as those in the diffusion bonded HXs proposed for SFRs coupled with a supercritical CO 2 (sCO 2) Brayton cycle power conversion system. In SFRs,more » Na 2O deposition can potentially occur following accidental air ingress in the intermediate heat transport system (IHTS) sodium and simultaneous failure of the IHTS sodium cold trap. In this scenario, oxygen can travel through the IHTS loop and reach the coldest regions, represented by the cold end of the sodium channels of the HXs, where Na 2O precipitation may initiate and continue. In addition to deteriorating HX heat transfer and pressure drop performance, Na 2O deposition can lead to channel plugging especially when the size of the sodium channels is small, which is the case for diffusion bonded HXs whose sodium channel hydraulic diameter is generally below 5 mm. Sodium oxide melts at a high temperature well above the sodium melting temperature such that removal of a solid plug such as through dissolution by pure sodium could take a lengthy time. The Sodium Plugging Phenomena Loop (SPPL) was developed at ANL, prior to this project, for investigating Na 2O deposition phenomena within sodium channels that are prototypical of the diffusion bonded HX channels envisioned for SFR-sCO 2 systems. In this project, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model capable of simulating the thermal-hydraulics of the SPPL test section and provided with Na 2O deposition prediction capabilities, was developed. This state-of-the-art computational tool incorporates a first-principles Na 2O deposition model developed by ANL, and combines it with predictive capabilities for the spatial and temporal variation of temperature, velocity, dissolved oxygen concentration, and wall temperature under flowing sodium conditions. The CFD model was validated under no-deposition conditions using experimental data collected with the SPPL, demonstrating the model’s capability to predict the thermal-hydraulics of the SPPL test section within the measurement uncertainty characterizing the SPPL instrumentation. The model’s deposition prediction capability was not, however, validated as the SPPL could not be operated under plugging conditions during the project, resulting in the lack of deposition data with adequate pedigree for a CFD model validation. Two novel diagnostic techniques to detect and characterize Na 2O deposits, i.e. Ultrasonic Time Domain Reflectometry (UTDR) and Potential Drop (PD) techniques, were developed to ultimately assist in the validation effort under plugging conditions, which can be performed once the SPPL becomes operational. This development effort consisted first in demonstrating, analytically and/or computationally, the capability of these techniques to diagnose Na 2O deposits inside of small channels (particularly the deposit’s thickness), and subsequently in the fabrication and testing of prototypical UTDR and PD instrumentation. The testing, performed on mockups of the SPPL test section, demonstrated the capability of these techniques to detect and characterize material discontinuities like those induced by sodium oxide deposition on stainless steel channel walls. Because of the mentioned impossibility to run the SPPL in a plugging mode, the developed instrumentation could not be tested in-situ, i.e. at the SPPL while deposits are being formed inside of the SPPL test section. Recommended future work includes a possible enhancement in the CFD modeling technique and installation of the developed UTDR and PD instrumentation on the test section, followed by plugging tests to be conducted with the SPPL. The installation of the UTDR and PD diagnostic instrumentation on the SPPL test section will allow collection of Na 2O deposition data after the onset of deposition to nearly complete channel plugging, which can ultimately be used for the validation of the CFD model.« less