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Title: Gamma-ray mirror technology for NDA of spent fuel

Abstract

Direct measurements of gamma rays emitted by fissile material have been proposed as an alternative to measurements of the gamma rays from fission products. From a safeguards applications perspective, direct detection of uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) K-shell fluorescence emission lines and specific lines from some of their isotopes could lead to improved shipper-receiver difference or input accountability at the start of Pu reprocessing. However, these measurements are difficult to implement when the spent fuel is in the line-of-sight of the detector, as the detector is exposed to high rates dominated by fission product emissions. To overcome the combination of high rates and high background, grazing incidence multilayer mirrors have been proposed as a solution to selectively reflect U and Pu hard X-ray and soft gamma rays in the 90 to 420 keV energy into a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector shielded from the direct line-of-sight of spent fuel. Several groups demonstrated that K-shell fluorescence lines of U and Pu in spent fuel could be detected with Ge detectors. In the field of hard X-ray optics the performance of reflective multilayer coated reflective optics was demonstrated up to 645 keV at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Initial measurements conducted at Oakmore » Ridge National Laboratory with sealed sources and scoping experiments conducted at the ORNL Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory (IFEL) with spent nuclear fuel further demonstrated the pass-band properties of multilayer mirrors for reflecting specific emission lines into 1D and 2D HPGe detectors, respectively.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [4]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  3. Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
  4. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1404864
Report Number(s):
LLNL-TR-739301
DOE Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
98 NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT, SAFEGUARDS AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION; 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Descalle, M. A., Ruz-Armendariz, J., Decker, T., Alameda, J., Brejnholt, N., Soufli, R., Robinson, J., Dreyer, J., Pivovaroff, M., Ziock, K., Chichester, D., Watson, S., and Trellue, H.. Gamma-ray mirror technology for NDA of spent fuel. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1404864.
Descalle, M. A., Ruz-Armendariz, J., Decker, T., Alameda, J., Brejnholt, N., Soufli, R., Robinson, J., Dreyer, J., Pivovaroff, M., Ziock, K., Chichester, D., Watson, S., & Trellue, H.. Gamma-ray mirror technology for NDA of spent fuel. United States. doi:10.2172/1404864.
Descalle, M. A., Ruz-Armendariz, J., Decker, T., Alameda, J., Brejnholt, N., Soufli, R., Robinson, J., Dreyer, J., Pivovaroff, M., Ziock, K., Chichester, D., Watson, S., and Trellue, H.. Thu . "Gamma-ray mirror technology for NDA of spent fuel". United States. doi:10.2172/1404864. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1404864.
@article{osti_1404864,
title = {Gamma-ray mirror technology for NDA of spent fuel},
author = {Descalle, M. A. and Ruz-Armendariz, J. and Decker, T. and Alameda, J. and Brejnholt, N. and Soufli, R. and Robinson, J. and Dreyer, J. and Pivovaroff, M. and Ziock, K. and Chichester, D. and Watson, S. and Trellue, H.},
abstractNote = {Direct measurements of gamma rays emitted by fissile material have been proposed as an alternative to measurements of the gamma rays from fission products. From a safeguards applications perspective, direct detection of uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) K-shell fluorescence emission lines and specific lines from some of their isotopes could lead to improved shipper-receiver difference or input accountability at the start of Pu reprocessing. However, these measurements are difficult to implement when the spent fuel is in the line-of-sight of the detector, as the detector is exposed to high rates dominated by fission product emissions. To overcome the combination of high rates and high background, grazing incidence multilayer mirrors have been proposed as a solution to selectively reflect U and Pu hard X-ray and soft gamma rays in the 90 to 420 keV energy into a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector shielded from the direct line-of-sight of spent fuel. Several groups demonstrated that K-shell fluorescence lines of U and Pu in spent fuel could be detected with Ge detectors. In the field of hard X-ray optics the performance of reflective multilayer coated reflective optics was demonstrated up to 645 keV at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Initial measurements conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with sealed sources and scoping experiments conducted at the ORNL Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory (IFEL) with spent nuclear fuel further demonstrated the pass-band properties of multilayer mirrors for reflecting specific emission lines into 1D and 2D HPGe detectors, respectively.},
doi = {10.2172/1404864},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Sep 28 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Thu Sep 28 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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