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Title: Observation and analysis of emergent coherent structures in a high-energy-density shock-driven planar mixing layer experiment

Abstract

Coherent emergent structures have been observed in a high-energy-density supersonic mixing layer experiment. A millimeter-scale shock tube uses lasers to drive Mbar shocks into the tube volume. The shocks are driven into initially solid foam (60 mg/cm 3) hemicylinders separated by an Al or Ti metal tracer strip; the components are vaporized by the drive. Before the experiment disassembles, the shocks cross at the tube center, creating a very fast (ΔU > 200 km/s) shear-unstable zone. After several nanoseconds, an expanding mixing layer is measured, and after 10+ ns we observe the appearance of streamwise-periodic, spanwise-aligned rollers associated with the primary Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of mixing layers. We additionally image roller pairing and spanwise-periodic streamwise-aligned filaments associated with secondary instabilities. New closures are derived to connect length scales of these structures to estimates of fluctuating velocity data otherwise unobtainable in the high-energy-density environment. Finally, this analysis indicates shear-induced specific turbulent energies 10 3 – 10 4 times higher than the nearest conventional experiments. Because of difficulties in continuously driving systems under these conditions and the harshness of the experimental environment limiting the usable diagnostics, clear evidence of these developing structures has never before been observed in this regime.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1402602
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-16-20044
Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0045; PLEEE8; TRN: US1703240
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-06NA25396; AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review E
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 94; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0045
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS

Citation Formats

Doss, Forrest William, Flippo, Kirk Adler, and Merritt, Elizabeth Catherine. Observation and analysis of emergent coherent structures in a high-energy-density shock-driven planar mixing layer experiment. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.94.023101.
Doss, Forrest William, Flippo, Kirk Adler, & Merritt, Elizabeth Catherine. Observation and analysis of emergent coherent structures in a high-energy-density shock-driven planar mixing layer experiment. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.94.023101.
Doss, Forrest William, Flippo, Kirk Adler, and Merritt, Elizabeth Catherine. 2016. "Observation and analysis of emergent coherent structures in a high-energy-density shock-driven planar mixing layer experiment". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.94.023101. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1402602.
@article{osti_1402602,
title = {Observation and analysis of emergent coherent structures in a high-energy-density shock-driven planar mixing layer experiment},
author = {Doss, Forrest William and Flippo, Kirk Adler and Merritt, Elizabeth Catherine},
abstractNote = {Coherent emergent structures have been observed in a high-energy-density supersonic mixing layer experiment. A millimeter-scale shock tube uses lasers to drive Mbar shocks into the tube volume. The shocks are driven into initially solid foam (60 mg/cm3) hemicylinders separated by an Al or Ti metal tracer strip; the components are vaporized by the drive. Before the experiment disassembles, the shocks cross at the tube center, creating a very fast (ΔU > 200 km/s) shear-unstable zone. After several nanoseconds, an expanding mixing layer is measured, and after 10+ ns we observe the appearance of streamwise-periodic, spanwise-aligned rollers associated with the primary Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of mixing layers. We additionally image roller pairing and spanwise-periodic streamwise-aligned filaments associated with secondary instabilities. New closures are derived to connect length scales of these structures to estimates of fluctuating velocity data otherwise unobtainable in the high-energy-density environment. Finally, this analysis indicates shear-induced specific turbulent energies 103 – 104 times higher than the nearest conventional experiments. Because of difficulties in continuously driving systems under these conditions and the harshness of the experimental environment limiting the usable diagnostics, clear evidence of these developing structures has never before been observed in this regime.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.94.023101},
journal = {Physical Review E},
number = 2,
volume = 94,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 8
}

Journal Article:
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  • On laser-driven platforms the assumption of experiment repeatability is particularly important due to a typically low data acquisition rate that doesn’t often allow for data redundancy. If the platform is repeatable, then measurements of the repeatable dynamics from multiple experiments can be treated as measurements of the same system. In high-energy-density hydrodynamic instability experiments the interface growth is assumed to be one of the repeatable aspects of the system. In this paper we demonstrate the repeatability of the instability growth in the counter-propagating shear experiment at the OMEGA laser facility, where the instability growth is characterized by the tracer layermore » thickness or mix-width evolution. Furthermore, in our previous experiment campaigns we have assumed the instability growth was repeatable enough to identify trends, but in this work we explicitly show that the mix-width measurements for nominally identical experiments are repeatable within the measurement error bars.« less
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  • Cited by 1
  • In this work, we examine the hydrodynamics of high-energy-density (HED) shear flows. Experiments, consisting of two materials of differing density, use the OMEGA-60 laser to drive a blast wave at a pressure of ∼50 Mbar into one of the media, creating a shear flow in the resulting shocked system. The interface between the two materials is Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable, and a mixing layer of growing width develops due to the shear. To theoretically analyze the instability's behavior, we rely on two sources of information. First, the interface spectrum is well-characterized, which allows us to identify how the shock front and themore » subsequent shear in the post-shock flow interact with the interface. These observations provide direct evidence that vortex merger dominates the evolution of the interface structure. Second, simulations calibrated to the experiment allow us to estimate the time-dependent evolution of the deposition of vorticity at the interface. The overall result is that we are able to choose a hydrodynamic model for the system, and consequently examine how well the flow in this HED system corresponds to a classical hydrodynamic description.« less
  • Radiographic data from a novel and highly successful high energy density Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability experiment is presented along with synapses of the theory and simulation behind the target design. Data on instability growth are compared to predictions from simulation and theory. The key role played by baroclinic vorticity production in the functioning of the target and the key design parameters are also discussed. The data show the complete evolution of large distinct KH eddies, from formation to turbulent break-up. Unexpectedly, low density bubbles comparable to the vortex size are observed forming in the free-stream region above each vortex at latemore » time. These bubbles have the appearance of localized shocks, possibly supporting a theoretical fluid dynamics conjecture about the existence of supersonic bubbles over the vortical structure [transonic convective Mach numbers, D. Papamoschou and A. Roshko, J. Fluid Mech. 197, 453 (1988)] that support localized shocks (shocklets) not extending into the free stream (P. E. Dimotakis, Proceedings of the 22nd Fluid Dynamics, Plasma Dynamics and Lasers Conference, 1991, Paper No. AIAA 91-1724). However, it is also possible that these low density bubbles are the result of a cavitationlike effect. Hypothesis that may explain the appearance of low density bubbles will be discussed.« less