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Title: Unconventional: The Development of Natural Gas from the Marcellus Shale; Product Code: SPE527; Published: March 27, 2017; Author: Daniel J. Soeder; ISBN Number: 978-0-8137-2527-7

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States). In-house Research
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE)
OSTI Identifier:
1402452
Report Number(s):
NETL-PUB-20072
Resource Type:
Book
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 58 GEOSCIENCES; 03 NATURAL GAS; Marcellus, shale gas, resources, hydraulic fracturing, environmental

Citation Formats

Soeder, Daniel J. Unconventional: The Development of Natural Gas from the Marcellus Shale; Product Code: SPE527; Published: March 27, 2017; Author: Daniel J. Soeder; ISBN Number: 978-0-8137-2527-7. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Soeder, Daniel J. Unconventional: The Development of Natural Gas from the Marcellus Shale; Product Code: SPE527; Published: March 27, 2017; Author: Daniel J. Soeder; ISBN Number: 978-0-8137-2527-7. United States.
Soeder, Daniel J. Wed . "Unconventional: The Development of Natural Gas from the Marcellus Shale; Product Code: SPE527; Published: March 27, 2017; Author: Daniel J. Soeder; ISBN Number: 978-0-8137-2527-7". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1402452.
@article{osti_1402452,
title = {Unconventional: The Development of Natural Gas from the Marcellus Shale; Product Code: SPE527; Published: March 27, 2017; Author: Daniel J. Soeder; ISBN Number: 978-0-8137-2527-7},
author = {Soeder, Daniel J.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Book:
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  • Quantitative flow-ecology relationships are needed to evaluate how water withdrawals for unconventional natural gas development may impact aquatic ecosystems. Addressing this need, we studied current patterns of hydrologic alteration in the Marcellus Shale region and related the estimated flow alteration to fish community measures. We then used these empirical flow-ecology relationships to evaluate alternative surface water withdrawals and environmental flow rules. Reduced high-flow magnitude, dampened rates of change, and increased low-flow magnitudes were apparent regionally, but changes in many of the flow metrics likely to be sensitive to withdrawals also showed substantial regional variation. Fish community measures were significantly relatedmore » to flow alteration, including declines in species richness with diminished annual runoff, winter low-flow, and summer median-flow. In addition, the relative abundance of intolerant taxa decreased with reduced winter high-flow and increased flow constancy, while fluvial specialist species decreased with reduced winter and annual flows. Stream size strongly mediated both the impact of withdrawal scenarios and the protection afforded by environmental flow standards. Under the most intense withdrawal scenario, 75% of reference headwaters and creeks (drainage areas <99 km 2) experienced at least 78% reduction in summer flow, whereas little change was predicted for larger rivers. Moreover, the least intense withdrawal scenario still reduced summer flows by at least 21% for 50% of headwaters and creeks. The observed 90th quantile flow-ecology relationships indicate that such alteration could reduce species richness by 23% or more. Seasonally varying environmental flow standards and high fixed minimum flows protected the most streams from hydrologic alteration, but common minimum flow standards left numerous locations vulnerable to substantial flow alteration. This study clarifies how additional water demands in the region may adversely affect freshwater biological integrity. Furthermore, the results make clear that policies to limit or prevent water withdrawals from smaller streams can reduce the risk of ecosystem impairment.« less
  • Coal gasification is the process of reacting coal with oxygen, steam, and carbon dioxide to form a product gas containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Gasification is essentially incomplete combustion. The chemical and physical processes are quite similar, the main difference being the nature of the final products. From a processing point of view the main operating difference is that gasification consumes heat evolved during combustion. Under the reducing environment of gasification the sulfur in the coal is released as hydrogen sulfide rather than sulfur dioxide and the coal's nitrogen is converted mostly to ammonia rather than nitrogen oxides. These reducedmore » forms of sulfur and nitrogen are easily isolated, captured, and utilized, and thus gasification is a clean coal technology with better environmental performance than coal combustion. Depending on the type of gasifier and the operating conditions, gasification can be used to produce a fuel gas suitable for any number of applications. A low heating value fuel gas is produced from an air blown gasifier for use as an industrial fuel and for power production. A medium heating value fuel gas is produced from enriched oxygen blown gasification for use as a synthesis gas in the production of chemicals such as ammonia, methanol, and transportation fuels. A high heating value gas can be produced from shifting the medium heating value product gas over catalysts to produce a substitute or synthetic natural gas (SNG).« less