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Title: Internal Nozzle Flow Simulations of Gasoline-Like Fuels under Diesel Operating Conditions

Abstract

Spray formation in internal combustion engines with direct injection is strictly correlated with internal nozzle flow characteristics, which are in turn influenced by fuel physical properties and injector needle motion. This paper pre-sents a series of 3D simulations that model the in-nozzle flow in a 5-hole mini-sac diesel injector. Two gasoline-like naphtha fuels, namely full-range and light naphtha, were tested under operating conditions typical of diesel applica-tions and were compared with n-dodecane, selected from a palette used as diesel surrogates. Validated methodolo-gies from our previous work were employed to account for realistic needle motion. The multi-phase nature of the problem was described by the mixture model assumption with the Volume of Fluid method. Cavitation effects were included by means of the Homogeneous Relaxation Model and turbulence closure was achieved with the Standard k-ε model in an Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes formulation. The results revealed that injector perfor-mance and propensity to cavitation are influenced by the fuel properties. Analyses of several physical quantities were carried out to highlight the fuel-to-fuel differences in terms of mass flow rate, discharge coefficients, and fuel vapor volume fraction inside the orifices. A series of parametric investigations was also performed to assess the fuel response to variedmore » fuel injection temperature, injection pressure, and cross-sectional orifice area. For all cases, the strict correlation between cavitation magnitude and saturation pressure was confirmed. Owing to their higher volatil-ity, the two gasoline-like fuels were characterized by higher cavitation across all the simulated conditions. Occur-rence of cavitation was mostly found at the needle seat and at the orifice inlets during the injection event’s transient, when very small gaps exist between the needle and its seat. This behavior tended to disappear at maximum needle lift, where cavitation was absent for all fuels. Differences in mass flow rate between the naphtha fuels and n-dodecane were measured and ascribed to the different densities of the three fuels. Nevertheless, they were found to be smaller than expected, owing to the lower viscosity of the gasoline-like fuels. This beneficial influence of the lower viscosity was shown to be less effective at higher temperature, where the relative viscosity differences de-creased.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Aramco Services Company
OSTI Identifier:
1402068
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: ILASS Americas, 29th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, 05/15/17 - 05/18/17, Atlanta, GA, US
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Torelli, R., Som, S., Pei, Y., Zhang, Yu, and Traver, Michael. Internal Nozzle Flow Simulations of Gasoline-Like Fuels under Diesel Operating Conditions. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Torelli, R., Som, S., Pei, Y., Zhang, Yu, & Traver, Michael. Internal Nozzle Flow Simulations of Gasoline-Like Fuels under Diesel Operating Conditions. United States.
Torelli, R., Som, S., Pei, Y., Zhang, Yu, and Traver, Michael. Mon . "Internal Nozzle Flow Simulations of Gasoline-Like Fuels under Diesel Operating Conditions". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_1402068,
title = {Internal Nozzle Flow Simulations of Gasoline-Like Fuels under Diesel Operating Conditions},
author = {Torelli, R. and Som, S. and Pei, Y. and Zhang, Yu and Traver, Michael},
abstractNote = {Spray formation in internal combustion engines with direct injection is strictly correlated with internal nozzle flow characteristics, which are in turn influenced by fuel physical properties and injector needle motion. This paper pre-sents a series of 3D simulations that model the in-nozzle flow in a 5-hole mini-sac diesel injector. Two gasoline-like naphtha fuels, namely full-range and light naphtha, were tested under operating conditions typical of diesel applica-tions and were compared with n-dodecane, selected from a palette used as diesel surrogates. Validated methodolo-gies from our previous work were employed to account for realistic needle motion. The multi-phase nature of the problem was described by the mixture model assumption with the Volume of Fluid method. Cavitation effects were included by means of the Homogeneous Relaxation Model and turbulence closure was achieved with the Standard k-ε model in an Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes formulation. The results revealed that injector perfor-mance and propensity to cavitation are influenced by the fuel properties. Analyses of several physical quantities were carried out to highlight the fuel-to-fuel differences in terms of mass flow rate, discharge coefficients, and fuel vapor volume fraction inside the orifices. A series of parametric investigations was also performed to assess the fuel response to varied fuel injection temperature, injection pressure, and cross-sectional orifice area. For all cases, the strict correlation between cavitation magnitude and saturation pressure was confirmed. Owing to their higher volatil-ity, the two gasoline-like fuels were characterized by higher cavitation across all the simulated conditions. Occur-rence of cavitation was mostly found at the needle seat and at the orifice inlets during the injection event’s transient, when very small gaps exist between the needle and its seat. This behavior tended to disappear at maximum needle lift, where cavitation was absent for all fuels. Differences in mass flow rate between the naphtha fuels and n-dodecane were measured and ascribed to the different densities of the three fuels. Nevertheless, they were found to be smaller than expected, owing to the lower viscosity of the gasoline-like fuels. This beneficial influence of the lower viscosity was shown to be less effective at higher temperature, where the relative viscosity differences de-creased.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon May 15 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Mon May 15 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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