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Title: FY17 Status Report on the Micromechanical Finite Element Modeling of Creep Fracture of Grade 91 Steel

Abstract

Advanced reactors designed to operate at higher temperatures than current light water reactors require structural materials with high creep strength and creep-fatigue resistance to achieve long design lives. Grade 91 is a ferritic/martensitic steel designed for long creep life at elevated temperatures. It has been selected as a candidate material for sodium fast reactor intermediate heat exchangers and other advanced reactor structural components. This report focuses on the creep deformation and rupture life of Grade 91 steel. The time required to complete an experiment limits the availability of long-life creep data for Grade 91 and other structural materials. Design methods often extrapolate the available shorter-term experimental data to longer design lives. However, extrapolation methods tacitly assume the underlying material mechanisms causing creep for long-life/low-stress conditions are the same as the mechanisms controlling creep in the short-life/high-stress experiments. A change in mechanism for long-term creep could cause design methods based on extrapolation to be non-conservative. The goal for physically-based microstructural models is to accurately predict material response in experimentally-inaccessible regions of design space. An accurate physically-based model for creep represents all the material mechanisms that contribute to creep deformation and damage and predicts the relative influence of each mechanism, which changesmore » with loading conditions. Ideally, the individual mechanism models adhere to the material physics and not an empirical calibration to experimental data and so the model remains predictive for a wider range of loading conditions. This report describes such a physically-based microstructural model for Grade 91 at 600° C. The model explicitly represents competing dislocation and diffusional mechanisms in both the grain bulk and grain boundaries. The model accurately recovers the available experimental creep curves at higher stresses and the limited experimental data at lower stresses, predominately primary creep rates. The current model considers only one temperature. However, because the model parameters are, for the most part, directly related to the physics of fundamental material processes, the temperature dependence of the properties are known. Therefore, temperature dependence can be included in the model with limited additional effort. The model predicts a mechanism shift for 600° C at approximately 100 MPa from a dislocation- dominated regime at higher stress to a diffusion-dominated regime at lower stress. This mechanism shift impacts the creep life, notch-sensitivity, and, likely, creep ductility of Grade 91. In particular, the model predicts existing extrapolation methods for creep life may be non-conservative when attempting to extrapolate data for higher stress creep tests to low stress, long-life conditions. Furthermore, the model predicts a transition from notchstrengthening behavior at high stress to notch-weakening behavior at lower stresses. Both behaviors may affect the conservatism of existing design methods.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [1]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  2. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
  3. DR&C Inc.
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy - Office of Nuclear Reactor Technologies - Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART)
OSTI Identifier:
1401966
Report Number(s):
ANL-ART-95
139470
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; creep fracture; Grade 91 steel; finite element; crystal plasticity; grain boundary element

Citation Formats

Messner, M. C., Truster, T. J., Cochran, K. B., Parks, D. M., and Sham, T. -L. FY17 Status Report on the Micromechanical Finite Element Modeling of Creep Fracture of Grade 91 Steel. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1401966.
Messner, M. C., Truster, T. J., Cochran, K. B., Parks, D. M., & Sham, T. -L. FY17 Status Report on the Micromechanical Finite Element Modeling of Creep Fracture of Grade 91 Steel. United States. doi:10.2172/1401966.
Messner, M. C., Truster, T. J., Cochran, K. B., Parks, D. M., and Sham, T. -L. Fri . "FY17 Status Report on the Micromechanical Finite Element Modeling of Creep Fracture of Grade 91 Steel". United States. doi:10.2172/1401966. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1401966.
@article{osti_1401966,
title = {FY17 Status Report on the Micromechanical Finite Element Modeling of Creep Fracture of Grade 91 Steel},
author = {Messner, M. C. and Truster, T. J. and Cochran, K. B. and Parks, D. M. and Sham, T. -L.},
abstractNote = {Advanced reactors designed to operate at higher temperatures than current light water reactors require structural materials with high creep strength and creep-fatigue resistance to achieve long design lives. Grade 91 is a ferritic/martensitic steel designed for long creep life at elevated temperatures. It has been selected as a candidate material for sodium fast reactor intermediate heat exchangers and other advanced reactor structural components. This report focuses on the creep deformation and rupture life of Grade 91 steel. The time required to complete an experiment limits the availability of long-life creep data for Grade 91 and other structural materials. Design methods often extrapolate the available shorter-term experimental data to longer design lives. However, extrapolation methods tacitly assume the underlying material mechanisms causing creep for long-life/low-stress conditions are the same as the mechanisms controlling creep in the short-life/high-stress experiments. A change in mechanism for long-term creep could cause design methods based on extrapolation to be non-conservative. The goal for physically-based microstructural models is to accurately predict material response in experimentally-inaccessible regions of design space. An accurate physically-based model for creep represents all the material mechanisms that contribute to creep deformation and damage and predicts the relative influence of each mechanism, which changes with loading conditions. Ideally, the individual mechanism models adhere to the material physics and not an empirical calibration to experimental data and so the model remains predictive for a wider range of loading conditions. This report describes such a physically-based microstructural model for Grade 91 at 600° C. The model explicitly represents competing dislocation and diffusional mechanisms in both the grain bulk and grain boundaries. The model accurately recovers the available experimental creep curves at higher stresses and the limited experimental data at lower stresses, predominately primary creep rates. The current model considers only one temperature. However, because the model parameters are, for the most part, directly related to the physics of fundamental material processes, the temperature dependence of the properties are known. Therefore, temperature dependence can be included in the model with limited additional effort. The model predicts a mechanism shift for 600° C at approximately 100 MPa from a dislocation- dominated regime at higher stress to a diffusion-dominated regime at lower stress. This mechanism shift impacts the creep life, notch-sensitivity, and, likely, creep ductility of Grade 91. In particular, the model predicts existing extrapolation methods for creep life may be non-conservative when attempting to extrapolate data for higher stress creep tests to low stress, long-life conditions. Furthermore, the model predicts a transition from notchstrengthening behavior at high stress to notch-weakening behavior at lower stresses. Both behaviors may affect the conservatism of existing design methods.},
doi = {10.2172/1401966},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {9}
}

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