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Title: Assessing task performance in FFDM, DBT, and synthetic mammography using uniform and anthropomorphic physical phantoms: Assessing FFDM, DBT, and SM using two phantoms

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1401483
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Medical Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 10; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-10-20 17:13:22; Journal ID: ISSN 0094-2405
Publisher:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Ikejimba, Lynda C., Glick, Stephen J., Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy, Samei, Ehsan, and Lo, Joseph Y.. Assessing task performance in FFDM, DBT, and synthetic mammography using uniform and anthropomorphic physical phantoms: Assessing FFDM, DBT, and SM using two phantoms. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4962475.
Ikejimba, Lynda C., Glick, Stephen J., Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy, Samei, Ehsan, & Lo, Joseph Y.. Assessing task performance in FFDM, DBT, and synthetic mammography using uniform and anthropomorphic physical phantoms: Assessing FFDM, DBT, and SM using two phantoms. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4962475.
Ikejimba, Lynda C., Glick, Stephen J., Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy, Samei, Ehsan, and Lo, Joseph Y.. 2016. "Assessing task performance in FFDM, DBT, and synthetic mammography using uniform and anthropomorphic physical phantoms: Assessing FFDM, DBT, and SM using two phantoms". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4962475.
@article{osti_1401483,
title = {Assessing task performance in FFDM, DBT, and synthetic mammography using uniform and anthropomorphic physical phantoms: Assessing FFDM, DBT, and SM using two phantoms},
author = {Ikejimba, Lynda C. and Glick, Stephen J. and Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy and Samei, Ehsan and Lo, Joseph Y.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1118/1.4962475},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 10,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 9
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1118/1.4962475

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  • Purpose: To present the design and procedure of an experimental method for acquiring densely sampled organ dose map for CT applications, based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters “nanoDots” and standard ATOM anthropomorphic phantoms; and to provide the results of applying the method—a dose data set with good statistics for the comparison with Monte Carlo simulation result in the future.Methods: A standard ATOM phantom has densely located holes (in 3 × 3 cm or 1.5 × 1.5 cm grids), which are too small (5 mm in diameter) to host many types of dosimeters, including the nanoDots. The authors modified themore » conventional way in which nanoDots are used, by removing the OSL disks from the holders before inserting them inside a standard ATOM phantom for dose measurements. The authors solved three technical difficulties introduced by this modification: (1) energy dependent dose calibration for raw OSL readings; (2) influence of the brief background exposure of OSL disks to dimmed room light; (3) correct pairing between the dose readings and measurement locations. The authors acquired 100 dose measurements at various positions in the phantom, which was scanned using a clinical chest protocol with both angular and z-axis tube current modulations.Results: Dose calibration was performed according to the beam qualities inside the phantom as determined from an established Monte Carlo model of the scanner. The influence of the brief exposure to dimmed room light was evaluated and deemed negligible. Pairing between the OSL readings and measurement locations was ensured by the experimental design. The organ doses measured for a routine adult chest scan protocol ranged from 9.4 to 18.8 mGy, depending on the composition, location, and surrounding anatomy of the organs. The dose distribution across different slices of the phantom strongly depended on the z-axis mA modulation. In the same slice, doses to the soft tissues other than the spinal cord demonstrated relatively small variations, with the maximum COV around 11.4%. This might be attributed to the angular mA modulation, the placement of the dosimeters, the chest cavity of the scanned region, and the size of the phantom. Doses to the spinal cord were consistently lower than those to other soft tissues.Conclusions: The method is suited for acquiring densely sampled organ dose maps, and can be used for studying dose distributions relevant to subject size, organ location, and clinical CT protocols.« less
  • Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) plays an important role in the diagnosis, staging, treatment, and surveillance of clinically localized diseases. Combined PET/CT imaging exhibits significantly higher sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy than conventional imaging when it comes to detecting malignant tumors in children. However, the radiation dose from positron-emitting radionuclide to the pediatric population is a matter of concern since children are at a particularly high risk when exposed to ionizing radiation.Methods: The authors evaluate the absorbed fractions and specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) of monoenergy photons/electrons as well as S-values of 9 positron-emitting radionuclides (C-11, N-13, O-15, F-18, Cu-64, Ga-68, Rb-82,more » Y-86, and I-124) in 48 source regions for 10 anthropomorphic pediatric hybrid models, including the reference newborn, 1-, 5-, 10-, and 15-yr-old male and female models, using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended general purpose Monte Carlo transport code.Results: The self-absorbed SAFs and S-values for most organs were inversely related to the age and body weight, whereas the cross-dose terms presented less correlation with body weight. For most source/target organ pairs, Rb-82 and Y-86 produce the highest self-absorbed and cross-absorbed S-values, respectively, while Cu-64 produces the lowest S-values because of the low-energy and high-frequency of electron emissions. Most of the total self-absorbed S-values are contributed from nonpenetrating particles (electrons and positrons), which have a linear relationship with body weight. The dependence of self-absorbed S-values of the two annihilation photons varies to the reciprocal of 0.76 power of the mass, whereas the self-absorbed S-values of positrons vary according to the reciprocal mass.Conclusions: The produced S-values for common positron-emitting radionuclides can be exploited for the assessment of radiation dose delivered to the pediatric population from various PET radiotracers used in clinical and research settings. The mass scaling method for positron-emitters can be used to derive patient-specific S-values from data of reference phantoms.« less
  • Purpose: To assess the impact of General Electrics automated tube potential algorithm, kV assist (kVa) on radiation dose and image quality, with an emphasis on optimizing protocols based on noise texture. Methods: Radiation dose was assessed by inserting optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLs) throughout the body of a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom (CIRS). The baseline protocol was: 120 kVp, 80 mA, 0.7s rotation time. Image quality was assessed by calculating the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and noise power spectrum (NPS) from the ACR CT accreditation phantom. CNRs were calculated according to the steps described in ACR CT phantom testing document.more » NPS was determined by taking the 3D FFT of the uniformity section of the ACR phantom. NPS and CNR were evaluated with and without kVa and for all available adaptive iterative statistical reconstruction (ASiR) settings, ranging from 0 to 100%. Each NPS was also evaluated for its peak frequency difference (PFD) with respect to the baseline protocol. Results: For the baseline protocol, CNR was found to decrease from 0.460 ± 0.182 to 0.420 ± 0.057 when kVa was activated. When compared against the baseline protocol, the PFD at ASiR of 40% yielded a decrease in noise magnitude as realized by the increase in CNR = 0.620 ± 0.040. The liver dose decreased by 30% with kVa activation. Conclusion: Application of kVa reduces the liver dose up to 30%. However, reduction in image quality for abdominal scans occurs when using the automated tube voltage selection feature at the baseline protocol. As demonstrated by the CNR and NPS analysis, the texture and magnitude of the noise in reconstructed images at ASiR 40% was found to be the same as our baseline images. We have demonstrated that 30% dose reduction is possible when using 40% ASiR with kVa in pediatric patients.« less
  • Purpose: To assess the impact of General Electrics (GE) automated tube potential algorithm, kV assist (kVa) on radiation dose and image quality, with an emphasis on optimizing protocols based on noise texture. Methods: Radiation dose was assessed by inserting optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLs) throughout the body of an adult anthropomorphic phantom (CIRS). The baseline protocol was: 120 kVp, Auto mA (180 to 380 mA), noise index (NI) = 14, adaptive iterative statistical reconstruction (ASiR) of 20%, 0.8s rotation time. Image quality was evaluated by calculating the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and noise power spectrum (NPS) from the ACRmore » CT accreditation phantom. CNRs were calculated according to the steps described in ACR CT phantom testing document. NPS was determined by taking the 3D FFT of the uniformity section of the ACR phantom. NPS and CNR were evaluated with and without kVa and for all available adaptive iterative statistical reconstruction (ASiR) settings, ranging from 0 to 100%. Each NPS was also evaluated for its peak frequency difference (PFD) with respect to the baseline protocol. Results: The CNR for the adult male was found to decrease from CNR = 0.912 ± 0.045 for the baseline protocol without kVa to a CNR = 0.756 ± 0.049 with kVa activated. When compared against the baseline protocol, the PFD at ASiR of 40% yielded a decrease in noise magnitude as realized by the increase in CNR = 0.903 ± 0.023. The difference in the central liver dose with and without kVa was found to be 0.07%. Conclusion: Dose reduction was insignificant in the adult phantom. As determined by NPS analysis, ASiR of 40% produced images with similar noise texture to the baseline protocol. However, the CNR at ASiR of 40% with kVa fails to meet the current ACR CNR passing requirement of 1.0.« less
  • Purpose: To compare 3D reconstructed dose of IMRT plans from 3D diode array measurements with measurements in anthropomorphic phantoms. Methods: Six IMRT plans were created for the IROC Houston (RPC) head and neck (H and N) and lung phantoms following IROC Houston planning protocols. The plans included flattened and unflattened beam energies ranging from 6 MV to 15 MV and both static and dynamic MLC tecH and Niques. Each plan was delivered three times to the respective anthropomorphic phantom, each of which contained thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and radiochromic films (RCFs). The plans were also delivered to a Delta4 diode arraymore » (Scandidos, Uppsala, Sweden). Irradiations were done using a TrueBeam STx (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The dose in the patient was calculated by the Delta4 software, which used the diode measurements to estimate incident energy fluence and a kernel-based pencil beam algorithm to calculate dose. The 3D dose results were compared with the TLD and RCF measurements. Results: In the lung, the average difference between TLDs and Delta4 calculations was 5% (range 2%–7%). For the H and N, the average differences were 2.4% (range 0%–4.5%) and 1.1% (range 0%–2%) for the high- and low-dose targets, respectively, and 12% (range 10%-13%) for the organ-at-risk simulating the spinal cord. For the RCF and criteria of 7%/4mm, 5%/3mm, and 3%/3mm, the average gamma-index pass rates were 95.4%, 85.7%, and 76.1%, respectively for the H and N and 76.2%, 57.8%, and 49.5% for the lung. The pass-rate in the lung decreased with increasing beam energy, as expected for a pencil beam algorithm. Conclusion: The H and N phantom dose reconstruction met the IROC Houston acceptance criteria for clinical trials; however, the lung phantom dose did not, most likely due to the inaccuracy of the pencil beam algorithm in the presence of low-density inhomogeneities. Work supported by PHS grant CA10953 and CA81647 (NCI, DHHS)« less