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Title: Income Inequality, TFP, and Human Capital

Authors:
 [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Departamento de Gestão e Economia and CEFAGE-UBI, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilhã Portugal
  2. Instituto Universitário de Lisboa, ISCTE-IUL, ISCTE Business School Economics Department, BRU-IUL (Business Research Unit), CEFAGE-UBI, Lisboa Portugal
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Fuel Cycle Technologies (NE-5)
OSTI Identifier:
1401263
Grant/Contract Number:
PTDC/EGE-ECO/112499/2009; UID/ECO/04007/2013; UID/GES/00315
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Economic Record
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 93; Journal Issue: 300; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-10-20 16:28:44; Journal ID: ISSN 0013-0249
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell
Country of Publication:
Australia
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Sequeira, Tiago Neves, Santos, Marcelo, and Ferreira-Lopes, Alexandra. Income Inequality, TFP, and Human Capital. Australia: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1111/1475-4932.12316.
Sequeira, Tiago Neves, Santos, Marcelo, & Ferreira-Lopes, Alexandra. Income Inequality, TFP, and Human Capital. Australia. doi:10.1111/1475-4932.12316.
Sequeira, Tiago Neves, Santos, Marcelo, and Ferreira-Lopes, Alexandra. Mon . "Income Inequality, TFP, and Human Capital". Australia. doi:10.1111/1475-4932.12316.
@article{osti_1401263,
title = {Income Inequality, TFP, and Human Capital},
author = {Sequeira, Tiago Neves and Santos, Marcelo and Ferreira-Lopes, Alexandra},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1111/1475-4932.12316},
journal = {Economic Record},
number = 300,
volume = 93,
place = {Australia},
year = {Mon Jan 16 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Mon Jan 16 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1111/1475-4932.12316

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  • Over the last two centuries, the impact of the Human System has grown dramatically, becoming strongly dominant within the Earth System in many different ways. Consumption, inequality, and population have increased extremely fast, especially since about 1950, threatening to overwhelm the many critical functions and ecosystems of the Earth System. Changes in the Earth System, in turn, have important feedback effects on the Human System, with costly and potentially serious consequences. However, current models do not incorporate these critical feedbacks. We argue that in order to understand the dynamics of either system, Earth System Models must be coupled with Humanmore » System Models through bidirectional couplings representing the positive, negative, and delayed feedbacks that exist in the real systems. In particular, key Human System variables, such as demographics, inequality, economic growth, and migration, are not coupled with the Earth System but are instead driven by exogenous estimates, such as United Nations population projections. This makes current models likely to miss important feedbacks in the real Earth–Human system, especially those that may result in unexpected or counterintuitive outcomes, and thus requiring different policy interventions from current models. The importance and imminence of sustainability challenges, the dominant role of the Human System in the Earth System, and the essential roles the Earth System plays for the Human System, all call for collaboration of natural scientists, social scientists, and engineers in multidisciplinary research and modeling to develop coupled Earth–Human system models for devising effective science-based policies and measures to benefit current and future generations.« less
  • Over the last two centuries, the impact of the Human System has grown dramatically, becoming strongly dominant within the Earth System in many different ways. Consumption, inequality, and population have increased extremely fast, especially since about 1950, threatening to overwhelm the many critical functions and ecosystems of the Earth System. Changes in the Earth System, in turn, have important feedback effects on the Human System, with costly and potentially serious consequences. However, current models do not incorporate these critical feedbacks. Here, we argue that in order to understand the dynamics of either system, Earth System Models must be coupled withmore » Human System Models through bidirectional couplings representing the positive, negative, and delayed feedbacks that exist in the real systems. In particular, key Human System variables, such as demographics, inequality, economic growth, and migration, are not coupled with the Earth System but are instead driven by exogenous estimates, such as United Nations population projections.This makes current models likely to miss important feedbacks in the real Earth–Human system, especially those that may result in unexpected or counterintuitive outcomes, and thus requiring different policy interventions from current models. Lastly, the importance and imminence of sustainability challenges, the dominant role of the Human System in the Earth System, and the essential roles the Earth System plays for the Human System, all call for collaboration of natural scientists, social scientists, and engineers in multidisciplinary research and modeling to develop coupled Earth–Human system models for devising effective science-based policies and measures to benefit current and future generations.« less
  • Purpose: Radiation therapy, a key component of cancer management, is required in more than half of new cancer patients, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The projected rise in cancer incidence over the next decades in LMICs will result in an increasing demand for radiation therapy services. Considering the present cancer incidence and that projected for 2020 (as listed in GLOBOCAN), we evaluated the current and anticipated needs for radiation therapy infrastructure and staffing by 2020 for each of the LMICs. Methods and Materials: Based on World Bank classification, 139 countries fall in the category of LMICs. Details ofmore » teletherapy, radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapy technologists were available for 84 LMICs from the International Atomic Energy Agency–Directory of Radiotherapy Centres (IAEA-DIRAC) database. Present requirements and those for 2020 were estimated according to recommendations from the IAEA and European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO-QUARTS). Results: Only 4 of the 139 LMICs have the requisite number of teletherapy units, and 55 (39.5%) have no radiation therapy facilities at present. Patient access to radiation therapy in the remaining 80 LMICs ranges from 2.3% to 98.8% (median: 36.7%). By 2020, these 84 LMICs would additionally need 9169 teletherapy units, 12,149 radiation oncologists, 9915 medical physicists, and 29,140 radiation therapy technologists. Moreover, de novo radiation therapy facilities would have to be considered for those with no services. Conclusions: Twelve pragmatic steps are proposed for consideration at national and international levels to narrow the gap in radiation therapy access. Multipronged and coordinated action from all national and international stakeholders is required to develop realistic strategies to curb this impending global crisis.« less
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