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 [1];  [2];  [2]
  1. Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego CA 92182
  2. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Drawer E Aiken SC 29801
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Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
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Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 39; Journal Issue: 2; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-10-20 16:18:43; Journal ID: ISSN 0014-3820
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

McClenaghan, Jr., Leroy R., Smith, Michael H., and Smith, Michael W. BIOCHEMICAL GENETICS OF MOSQUITOFISH. IV. CHANGES OF ALLELE FREQUENCIES THROUGH TIME AND SPACE. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.1985.tb05681.x.
McClenaghan, Jr., Leroy R., Smith, Michael H., & Smith, Michael W. BIOCHEMICAL GENETICS OF MOSQUITOFISH. IV. CHANGES OF ALLELE FREQUENCIES THROUGH TIME AND SPACE. United States. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.1985.tb05681.x.
McClenaghan, Jr., Leroy R., Smith, Michael H., and Smith, Michael W. Wed . "BIOCHEMICAL GENETICS OF MOSQUITOFISH. IV. CHANGES OF ALLELE FREQUENCIES THROUGH TIME AND SPACE". United States. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.1985.tb05681.x.
author = {McClenaghan, Jr., Leroy R. and Smith, Michael H. and Smith, Michael W.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1111/j.1558-5646.1985.tb05681.x},
journal = {Evolution},
number = 2,
volume = 39,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed May 31 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Wed May 31 00:00:00 EDT 2017}

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Publisher's Accepted Manuscript

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Cited by: 44works
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  • We have examined electrophoretic variation in proteins encoded by 11-14 loci in species representing all nine genera of the Centrarchidae. A dendrogram based on allozyme information is compared to postulated relationships of sunfish genera based on general and specific morphologies, and on hybridizing propensity. The allozyme information correlates most strongly with that derived from a very detailed study of the acoustico-lateralis system by Branson and Moore (1962). Similarities between the two sets of data are observed (1) in the clustering together of species of Lepomis; (2) in the clustering of Lepomis with Micropterus; (3) in the placement of Acantharchus withmore » Archoplites; and (4) in the very distant relationship of Elassoma to the other centrarchid genera. The levels of genetic similarity between centrarchid genera are compared to previously published levels of similarity between congeneric species of Lepomis, subspecies of Lepomis macrochirus, and geographic populations within the subspecies of L. m. macrochirus and L. m. purpurescens. Mean levels of genetic similarity (S) are as follows: between genera, S = 0.29; between congeneric species, S = 0.53; between subspecies of Lepomis macrochirus, S = 0.85; between geographic populations, S = 0.97.« less
  • The effects of radionuclide contamination on genetic structure of eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) populations from the US Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) were investigated to develop methods of assessing ecological risk of chronic exposures to xenobiotics. Fish from two contaminated and two reference sites were examined by the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, which revealed that the frequency of three markers was greater in the contaminated than the reference sites and that the frequency of two markers was greater in reference than in the contaminated sites. A previous study examined populations of western mosquitofish (G. affinis) frommore » the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and found that certain RAPD markers were present in radionuclide-contaminated ORNL populations at a higher frequency than in reference populations. The contaminant-indicative markers observed in the SRS populations were the same size and amplified by the same polymerase chain reaction primers used in the ORNL study. Southern blot analysis revealed that the SRS G. holbrooki contaminant-indicative markers were homologous to the ORNL G. affinis contaminant-indicative markers. The observation that two species show similar patterns of band frequency shifts at two separate localities is consistent with the hypothesis that these DNA markers may originate from genetic elements that provide a selective advantage in contaminated habitats. Thus, the methodology used in these studies may prove to be useful to indicate population-level effects of environmental contamination.« less
  • Purpose: To determine whether intratherapy prostate-specific antigen (itPSA) changes during radiotherapy (RT) predict prostate cancer outcomes. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients treated with definitive external beam RT without hormonal therapy who had at least two itPSA measurements. We calculated the adjusted ratio of rise (ARR) in itPSA relative to the pretreatment baseline PSA for each patient. This was defined as ln(maximal itPSA + 1)/ln(baseline PSA + 1). We stratified patients according to an ARR of <1 vs. >1.1. This corresponded to an approximately <30% vs. >30% increase in PSA during RT. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed examiningmore » for biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: At a median follow-up of 74 months, we identified 307 patients who met our criteria. Univariate analysis revealed that patients with an ARR of <1.1 (n = 182) had statistically significant inferior BFFS and OS compared with those with an ARR of >1.1 (n = 125). The median BFFS and OS for these two groups was 51 vs. 101 months (p = 0.001) and 96 vs. 128 months (p = 0.01), respectively. On multivariate analysis, the effect of ARR on the risk of biochemical failure for patients with an ARR of <1.1 was significant (p = 0.03) only during the first year after RT. In contrast, the effect of the ARR on OS remained significant for a full 5 years (p = 0.05). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that an ARR of <1.1 predicts for inferior BFFS and OS in patients treated with RT alone. PSA measurement during RT is a novel clinical tool that could be used to identify patients who might warrant more aggressive therapeutic intervention.« less
  • Most current linkage analyses make use of highly polymorphic DNA markers. Assigning correct allele frequencies for these markers may be extremely difficult in particular study populations. Designation of erroneous frequencies may result in false-positive evidence for linkage, as well as in failure to correctly exclude linkage. These effects are most pronounced in small pedigrees with key individuals unavailable for typing. The power to correctly detect true linkage does not appear to be greatly affected by inaccurate allele frequencies. Before linkage analyses are performed for specific pedigrees, it is recommended that simulation analyses be performed, followed by uncertainty and sensitivity analyses.more » 23 refs., 3 figs.« less
  • The authors summarize available data on the frequencies of alleles at microsatellite loci in human populations and compare observed distributions of allele frequencies to those generated by a simulation of the stepwise mutation model. They show that observed frequency distributions at 108 loci are consistent with the results of the model under the assumption that mutations cause an increase or decrease in repeat number by one and under the condition that the product Nu, where N is the effective population size and u is the mutation rate, is larger than one. It is also shown that the variance of themore » distribution of allele sizes is a useful estimator of Nu and performs much better than previously suggested estimators for the stepwise mutation model. In the data, there is no correlation between the mean and variance in allele size at a locus or between the number of alleles and mean allele size, which suggests that the mutation rate at these loci is independent of allele size. 39 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.« less