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Title: Near-infrared-emitting heteroleptic cationic iridium complexes derived from 2,3-diphenylbenzo[g]quinoxaline as in vitro theranostic photodynamic therapy agents

Abstract

Five heteroleptic cationic iridium complexes with a π-expansive cyclometalating 2,3-diphenylbenzo[g] quinoxaline (dpbq) ligand (C^N ligand) and different diimine ligands (N^N ligands) (i.e. 2,2’-bipyridine (bpy, 1), phenanthroline (phen, 2), 2-(2-pyridinyl)quinoline (pqu, 3), 2,2’-bisquinoline (bqu, 4), and 2-(quinolin-2-yl)quinoxaline (quqo, 5)) were synthesized and characterized. The lowest-energy singlet electronic transitions (S1 states) were mainly dpbq ligand-centred 1ILCT (intraligand charge transfer)/1MLCT (metal to ligand charge transfer) transitions mixed with some 1π,π* transitions for complexes 1–4 with increased contributions from 1LLCT (ligand to ligand charge transfer) in 3 and 4. For complex 5, the S1 state was switched to the 1LLCT/1MLCT transitions. All five complexes displayed weak near-infrared (NIR) phosphorescence, with maximal emission output spanning 700–1400 nm and quantum yields being on the order of 10-3. The triplet state absorptions of 1–4 all resembled that of the [Ir(dpbq)2Cl]2 dimer with lifetimes of ca. 400 ns, while the TA spectrum of 5 possessed the characteristics of both the quqo ligand and the [Ir(dpbq)2Cl]2 dimer with a bi-exponential decay of ca. 5 μs and 400 ns. While the photophysics of these complexes differ slightly, their theranostic photodynamic therapy (PDT) effects varied drastically. All of the complexes were biologically active toward melanoma cells. Complexes 2 and 3 weremore » the most cytotoxic, with 230–340 nM activity and selectivity factors for melanoma cells over normal skin fibroblasts of 34 to 40 fold. Complexes 2, 3, and 5 became very potent cytotoxins with light activation, with EC50 values as low as 12–18 nM. This potent nanomolar light-triggered activity combined with a lower dark toxicity resulted in 5 having a phototherapeutic index (PI) margin of almost 275. The bpy coligand led to the least amount of dark toxicity of 1, while phen and pqu produced cytotoxic but selective complexes 2 and 3. The quqo coligand produced the most potent complex 5 for in vitro PDT, both in terms of photocytotoxicity and PI. All Ir(III) complexes exhibited very bright NIR phosphorescence in melanoma cells. The wide range of cytotoxicity and photocytotoxicity effects within a relatively small class of complexes highlights the importance of the identity of the coligand in the biological activity of the π-expansive biscyclometalated Ir(III) complexes, and their bright NIR emission in live cells demonstrates their potential as theranostic PDT agents.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC); U.S. Army Research Laboratory; Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR); USDOE Office of Science - Office of Basic Energy Sciences - Scientific User Facilities Division
OSTI Identifier:
1400384
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Dalton Transactions
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 46; Journal Issue: 25; Journal ID: ISSN 1477-9226
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Wang, Li, Yin, Huimin, Cui, Peng, Hetu, Marc, Wang, Chengzhe, Monro, Susan, Schaller, Richard D., Cameron, Colin G., Liu, Bingqing, Kilina, Svetlana, McFarland, Sherri A., and Sun, Wenfang. Near-infrared-emitting heteroleptic cationic iridium complexes derived from 2,3-diphenylbenzo[g]quinoxaline as in vitro theranostic photodynamic therapy agents. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1039/c7dt00913e.
Wang, Li, Yin, Huimin, Cui, Peng, Hetu, Marc, Wang, Chengzhe, Monro, Susan, Schaller, Richard D., Cameron, Colin G., Liu, Bingqing, Kilina, Svetlana, McFarland, Sherri A., & Sun, Wenfang. Near-infrared-emitting heteroleptic cationic iridium complexes derived from 2,3-diphenylbenzo[g]quinoxaline as in vitro theranostic photodynamic therapy agents. United States. doi:10.1039/c7dt00913e.
Wang, Li, Yin, Huimin, Cui, Peng, Hetu, Marc, Wang, Chengzhe, Monro, Susan, Schaller, Richard D., Cameron, Colin G., Liu, Bingqing, Kilina, Svetlana, McFarland, Sherri A., and Sun, Wenfang. Fri . "Near-infrared-emitting heteroleptic cationic iridium complexes derived from 2,3-diphenylbenzo[g]quinoxaline as in vitro theranostic photodynamic therapy agents". United States. doi:10.1039/c7dt00913e.
@article{osti_1400384,
title = {Near-infrared-emitting heteroleptic cationic iridium complexes derived from 2,3-diphenylbenzo[g]quinoxaline as in vitro theranostic photodynamic therapy agents},
author = {Wang, Li and Yin, Huimin and Cui, Peng and Hetu, Marc and Wang, Chengzhe and Monro, Susan and Schaller, Richard D. and Cameron, Colin G. and Liu, Bingqing and Kilina, Svetlana and McFarland, Sherri A. and Sun, Wenfang},
abstractNote = {Five heteroleptic cationic iridium complexes with a π-expansive cyclometalating 2,3-diphenylbenzo[g] quinoxaline (dpbq) ligand (C^N ligand) and different diimine ligands (N^N ligands) (i.e. 2,2’-bipyridine (bpy, 1), phenanthroline (phen, 2), 2-(2-pyridinyl)quinoline (pqu, 3), 2,2’-bisquinoline (bqu, 4), and 2-(quinolin-2-yl)quinoxaline (quqo, 5)) were synthesized and characterized. The lowest-energy singlet electronic transitions (S1 states) were mainly dpbq ligand-centred 1ILCT (intraligand charge transfer)/1MLCT (metal to ligand charge transfer) transitions mixed with some 1π,π* transitions for complexes 1–4 with increased contributions from 1LLCT (ligand to ligand charge transfer) in 3 and 4. For complex 5, the S1 state was switched to the 1LLCT/1MLCT transitions. All five complexes displayed weak near-infrared (NIR) phosphorescence, with maximal emission output spanning 700–1400 nm and quantum yields being on the order of 10-3. The triplet state absorptions of 1–4 all resembled that of the [Ir(dpbq)2Cl]2 dimer with lifetimes of ca. 400 ns, while the TA spectrum of 5 possessed the characteristics of both the quqo ligand and the [Ir(dpbq)2Cl]2 dimer with a bi-exponential decay of ca. 5 μs and 400 ns. While the photophysics of these complexes differ slightly, their theranostic photodynamic therapy (PDT) effects varied drastically. All of the complexes were biologically active toward melanoma cells. Complexes 2 and 3 were the most cytotoxic, with 230–340 nM activity and selectivity factors for melanoma cells over normal skin fibroblasts of 34 to 40 fold. Complexes 2, 3, and 5 became very potent cytotoxins with light activation, with EC50 values as low as 12–18 nM. This potent nanomolar light-triggered activity combined with a lower dark toxicity resulted in 5 having a phototherapeutic index (PI) margin of almost 275. The bpy coligand led to the least amount of dark toxicity of 1, while phen and pqu produced cytotoxic but selective complexes 2 and 3. The quqo coligand produced the most potent complex 5 for in vitro PDT, both in terms of photocytotoxicity and PI. All Ir(III) complexes exhibited very bright NIR phosphorescence in melanoma cells. The wide range of cytotoxicity and photocytotoxicity effects within a relatively small class of complexes highlights the importance of the identity of the coligand in the biological activity of the π-expansive biscyclometalated Ir(III) complexes, and their bright NIR emission in live cells demonstrates their potential as theranostic PDT agents.},
doi = {10.1039/c7dt00913e},
journal = {Dalton Transactions},
issn = {1477-9226},
number = 25,
volume = 46,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {5}
}

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