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Title: Characterization of Organic and Nonorganic Components of the Bakken, Marcellus, Pierre, and Woodford Shales

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Research Org.:
National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States). In-house Research
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE)
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Conference: Verba, C., Crandall, D., Moore, J. Organic and Nonorganic Characterization of the Bakken, Marcellus, Pierre, and Woodford Shales. Microanalysis and Microscopy: Columbus, OH. August, 2016. Abstract #PDP-19
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Verba, C., Moore, J., and Crandall, D. Characterization of Organic and Nonorganic Components of the Bakken, Marcellus, Pierre, and Woodford Shales. United States: N. p., 2016. Web.
Verba, C., Moore, J., & Crandall, D. Characterization of Organic and Nonorganic Components of the Bakken, Marcellus, Pierre, and Woodford Shales. United States.
Verba, C., Moore, J., and Crandall, D. Mon . "Characterization of Organic and Nonorganic Components of the Bakken, Marcellus, Pierre, and Woodford Shales". United States. doi:.
title = {Characterization of Organic and Nonorganic Components of the Bakken, Marcellus, Pierre, and Woodford Shales},
author = {Verba, C. and Moore, J. and Crandall, D.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Mon Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 2016}

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  • The combination of mass spectra and EPR allows one to discern the onset through completion of thermally dependent reactions. The studies reported give information on tetrapyrrole diagenesis. Analyses of marine sediments show that chlorins give way to free base porphyrins with aromatization complete at 1000 m depth. Initial homologous series generation of up to 4 members (C/sub 32/ to C/sub 29/) occurs during the chlorin-porphyrin transition. Metallization with either Ni or vanadyl occurs without preference, although nickel porphyrins have a wider distribution. As diagenesis progresses, rupture of the isocyclic ring of porphyrins of the DPEP series results in generation ofmore » the etio series. The porphyrins are the only likely precursors to the petroporphyrins. Petroporphyrins contain no information that relates a particular species to a particular chlorophyll. The maturity of a sediment can be determined by examination of the kerogen and tetrapyrrole pigments. The chemical events surrounding a Miocene intrusion into a Cretaceous shale can be reconstructed. (DLC)« less
  • The determination of the organic functionalities of bitumens and kerogens in oil shales have been approached by using chemical methods in which one solid phase is always involved. The Solid Phase Approach to the analysis of complex mixtures comprises three main methods: 1. The Solid Phase Functional Group Analysis Method: used for the analysis (qualitative and quantitative) of soluble compounds (bitumens and tars) is based on colored products produced by chromogenic reaction of specific functional group reagents bounded to the surface of a solid matrix, with the corresponding compounds of the substrate. 2. The Functional Group Marker Method: used formore » the analysis (qualitative and quantitative) of solid substrates (kerogen) is based on the amount of a marker incorporated to the solid phase by means of a reaction between the kerogen and a marked specific functional reagent (soluble). 3. The Solid Phase Extraction Method: used for separating a complex mixture into fractions containing a same functional group. It is based in the reaction (reversible) of a solid phase functional group reagent with the corresponding compounds in a substrate.« less
  • Differences in oil sands processibility and extraction yields can be dependent upon many factors including the composition of the mineral components and the organic complexes that are associated with certain minerals. These mineral-organic associations help provide the bridge which leads to carry over of bitumen with the tailings as well as carry over of water and mineral matter with product. The nature of these complexes has been studied with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as other techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis. The relationship of these measurements to processibility and the relevance of conventional oilmore » sands structural modes are discussed.« less
  • Historic data from the Department of Energy Eastern Gas Shale Project (ESGP) were compiled to develop a database of geochemical analyses, well logs, lithological and natural fracture descriptions from oriented core, and reservoir parameters. The nine EGSP wells were located throughout the Appalachian Basin and intercepted the Marcellus Shale from depths of 750 meters (2500 ft) to 2500 meters (8200 ft). A primary goal of this research is to use these existing data to help construct a geologic framework model of the Marcellus Shale across the basin and link rock properties to gas productivity. In addition to the historic data,more » x-ray computerized tomography (CT) of entire cores with a voxel resolution of 240mm and optical microscopy to quantify mineral and organic volumes was performed. Porosity and permeability measurements in a high resolution, steady-state flow apparatus are also planned. Earth Vision software was utilized to display and perform volumetric calculations on individual wells, small areas with several horizontal wells, and on a regional basis. The results indicate that the lithologic character of the Marcellus Shale changes across the basin. Gas productivity appears to be influenced by the properties of the organic material and the mineral composition of the rock, local and regional structural features, the current state of in-situ stress, and lithologic controls on the geometry of induced fractures during stimulations. The recoverable gas volume from the Marcellus Shale is variable over the vertical stratigraphic section, as well as laterally across the basin. The results from this study are expected to help improve the assessment of the resource, and help optimize the recovery of natural gas.« less