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Title: Cellular Interfacing with Arrays of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers and Nanofiber-Templated Materials


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Griffin, Guy David, Ericson, Milton Nance, McKnight, Timothy E., Simpson, Michael L., Doktycz, Mitchel John, Guillorn, Michael A., Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich, and Merkulov, Vladimir I. Cellular Interfacing with Arrays of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers and Nanofiber-Templated Materials. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Griffin, Guy David, Ericson, Milton Nance, McKnight, Timothy E., Simpson, Michael L., Doktycz, Mitchel John, Guillorn, Michael A., Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich, & Merkulov, Vladimir I. Cellular Interfacing with Arrays of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers and Nanofiber-Templated Materials. United States.
Griffin, Guy David, Ericson, Milton Nance, McKnight, Timothy E., Simpson, Michael L., Doktycz, Mitchel John, Guillorn, Michael A., Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich, and Merkulov, Vladimir I. 2017. "Cellular Interfacing with Arrays of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers and Nanofiber-Templated Materials". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_1400199,
title = {Cellular Interfacing with Arrays of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers and Nanofiber-Templated Materials},
author = {Griffin, Guy David and Ericson, Milton Nance and McKnight, Timothy E. and Simpson, Michael L. and Doktycz, Mitchel John and Guillorn, Michael A. and Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich and Merkulov, Vladimir I.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month =
}

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  • The ability to synthesize carbon nanofibers with a high degree of control over their geometry, location, and structure via catalytic plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition has expanded the possibility of new applications. The nanoscale dimensions and high aspect ratio of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs), along with favorable physical and chemical characteristics, has provided a nanostructured material with properties that are well-suited for interfacing with live cells and tissues. This review surveys the aspects of synthesis, integration, and functionalization of VACNFs, followed by examples of how VACNFs have been used to interface with live systems for a variety of advanced nanoscalemore » biological applications.« less
  • Highlights: ► Acetylene as carbon resource and copper foil as catalyst. ► Three carbon nanostructures are synthesized by modulating feeding gas compositions. ► NH{sub 3} is a key factor in the growth of VA-CNF arrays. -- Abstract: Vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (VA-CNF) arrays on carbon substrate have been synthesized via one-step chemical vapor deposition process on copper foil, by using acetylene as carbon resource. Three types of carbon nanostructures, viz. bare carbon films, CNFs and VA-CNFs grown on carbon substrate, could be selectively synthesized by only modulating the concentration of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} in the feeding gases.more » It was found that NH{sub 3} was a key factor in the growth of VA-CNF arrays, which could increase the diffusion capability of copper atoms in carbon materials, therefore promote forming larger spherical Cu NPs catalysts for the growth of VA-CNFs. Furthermore, a growth mechanism in different feeding gas compositions was proposed.« less
  • Flexible strategies for the biochemical functionalization of synthetic nanoscale materials can enhance their impact upon a broader range of devices and applications. Here we report approaches for the heterogeneous functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers, a nanostructured material increasingly used to provide nanoscale components in microfabricated devices. Photoresist blocking strategies are developed for site-specific physical, chemical, and electrochemical functionalization of nanofiber arrays both spatially across regions of the device as well as along the length of the vertical nanofibers. These approaches are explored for the functionalization of nanofiber surfaces with gold, conductive polymers, and DNA and for the biotinylation andmore » subsequent capture of active enzyme- and quantum-dot-conjugated (strept)avidins. Functionalizations are visualized with both fluorescent and electron microscopy and characterized using dye and enzyme assays.« less
  • Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) with immobilized DNA have been developed as a novel tool for direct physical introduction and expression of exogenous genes in mammalian cells. Immobilization of DNA base amines to the carboxylic acids on nanofibers can influence the accessibility and transcriptional activity of the DNA template, making it necessary to determine the number of accessible gene copies on nanofiber arrays. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in vitro transcription (IVT) to investigate the transcriptional accessibility of DNA tethered to VACNFs by correlating the yields of both IVT and PCR to that of non-tethered, free DNA. Yieldsmore » of the promoter region and promoter/gene region of bound DNA plasmid were high. Amplification using primers designed to cover 80% of the plasmid failed to yield any product. These results are consistent with tethered, longer DNA sequences having a higher probability of interfering with the activity of DNA and RNA polymerases. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to quantify the number of accessible gene copies tethered to nanofiber arrays. Copy numbers of promoters and reporter genes were quantified and compared to non-tethered DNA controls. In subsequent reactions of the same nanofiber arrays, DNA yields decreased dramatically in the non-tethered control, while the majority of tethered DNA was retained on the arrays. This decrease could be explained by the presence of DNA which is non-tethered to all samples and released during the assay. In conclusion,this investigation shows the applicability of these methods for monitoring DNA immobilization techniques.« less
  • We report a method to fabricate tubular nanostructures using vertically aligned carbon nanofibers grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition as templates. The resulting nanopipes are oriented perpendicular to the substrate and have internal diameters ranging from 30 to 200 nm and can be up to several micrometers in length. These nanopipes can be deterministically positioned on a substrate and arranged into singular devices or arrays.