skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: The role of defects in laser-induced modifications of silica coatings and fused silica using picosecond pulses at 1053 nm: I Damage morphology

Abstract

Laser-induced damage with ps pulse widths straddles the transition from intrinsic, multi-photon ionization and avalanche ionization-based ablation with fs pulses to defect-dominated, thermal-based damage with ns pulses. We investigated the morphology of damage for fused silica and silica coatings between 1 ps and 60 ps at 1053 nm. Using calibrated laser-induced damage experiments, in situ imaging, and high-resolution optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, we show that defects play an important role in laser-induced damage down to 1 ps. Three types of damage are observed: ablation craters, ultra-high density pits, and smooth, circular depressions with central pits. For 10 ps and longer, the smooth, circular depressions limit the damage performance of fused silica and silica coatings. The observed high-density pits and material removal down to 3 ps indicate that variations in surface properties limit the laser-induced damage onset to a greater extent than expected below 60 ps. Below 3 ps, damage craters are smoother although there is still evidence as seen by AFM of inhomogeneous laser-induced damage response very near the damage onset. These results show that modeling the damage onset only as a function of pulse width does not capture the convoluted processes leading to lasermore » induced damage with ps pulses. It is necessary to account for the effects of defects on the processes leading to laser-induced damage. In conclusion, the effects of isolated defects or inhomogeneities are most pronounced above 3 ps but are still discernible and possibly important down to the shortest pulse width investigated here.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1399736
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-697493
Journal ID: ISSN 1094-4087; OPEXFF
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Optics Express
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 25; Journal Issue: 13; Journal ID: ISSN 1094-4087
Publisher:
Optical Society of America (OSA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS

Citation Formats

Laurence, T. A., Ly, S., Shen, N., Carr, C. W., Alessi, D. A., Bude, J. D., Rigatti, A., and Negres, R. A. The role of defects in laser-induced modifications of silica coatings and fused silica using picosecond pulses at 1053 nm: I Damage morphology. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1364/OE.25.015161.
Laurence, T. A., Ly, S., Shen, N., Carr, C. W., Alessi, D. A., Bude, J. D., Rigatti, A., & Negres, R. A. The role of defects in laser-induced modifications of silica coatings and fused silica using picosecond pulses at 1053 nm: I Damage morphology. United States. doi:10.1364/OE.25.015161.
Laurence, T. A., Ly, S., Shen, N., Carr, C. W., Alessi, D. A., Bude, J. D., Rigatti, A., and Negres, R. A. Thu . "The role of defects in laser-induced modifications of silica coatings and fused silica using picosecond pulses at 1053 nm: I Damage morphology". United States. doi:10.1364/OE.25.015161. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1399736.
@article{osti_1399736,
title = {The role of defects in laser-induced modifications of silica coatings and fused silica using picosecond pulses at 1053 nm: I Damage morphology},
author = {Laurence, T. A. and Ly, S. and Shen, N. and Carr, C. W. and Alessi, D. A. and Bude, J. D. and Rigatti, A. and Negres, R. A.},
abstractNote = {Laser-induced damage with ps pulse widths straddles the transition from intrinsic, multi-photon ionization and avalanche ionization-based ablation with fs pulses to defect-dominated, thermal-based damage with ns pulses. We investigated the morphology of damage for fused silica and silica coatings between 1 ps and 60 ps at 1053 nm. Using calibrated laser-induced damage experiments, in situ imaging, and high-resolution optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, we show that defects play an important role in laser-induced damage down to 1 ps. Three types of damage are observed: ablation craters, ultra-high density pits, and smooth, circular depressions with central pits. For 10 ps and longer, the smooth, circular depressions limit the damage performance of fused silica and silica coatings. The observed high-density pits and material removal down to 3 ps indicate that variations in surface properties limit the laser-induced damage onset to a greater extent than expected below 60 ps. Below 3 ps, damage craters are smoother although there is still evidence as seen by AFM of inhomogeneous laser-induced damage response very near the damage onset. These results show that modeling the damage onset only as a function of pulse width does not capture the convoluted processes leading to laser induced damage with ps pulses. It is necessary to account for the effects of defects on the processes leading to laser-induced damage. In conclusion, the effects of isolated defects or inhomogeneities are most pronounced above 3 ps but are still discernible and possibly important down to the shortest pulse width investigated here.},
doi = {10.1364/OE.25.015161},
journal = {Optics Express},
number = 13,
volume = 25,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jun 22 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Thu Jun 22 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:
  • Here, we investigate the role of defects in laser-induced damage of fused silica and of silica coatings produced by e-beam and PIAD processes which are used in damage resistant, multi-layer dielectric, reflective optics. We perform experiments using 1053 nm, 1–60 ps laser pulses with varying beam size, number of shots, and pulse widths in order to understand the characteristics of defects leading to laser-induced damage. This pulse width range spans a transition in mechanisms from intrinsic material ablation for short pulses to defect-dominated damage for longer pulses. We show that for pulse widths as short as 10 ps, laser-induced damagemore » properties of fused silica and silica films are dominated by isolated absorbers. The density of these precursors and their fluence dependence of damage initiation suggest a single photon process for initial energy absorption in these precursors. Higher density precursors that initiate close to the ablation threshold at shorter pulse widths are also observed in fused silica, whose fluence and pulse width scaling suggest a multiphoton initiation process. We also show that these initiated damage sites grow with subsequent laser pulses. We show that scaling laws obtained in more conventional ways depend on the beam size and on the definition of damage for ps pulses. For this reason, coupling scaling laws with the density of precursors are critical to understanding the damage limitations of optics in the ps regime.« less
  • The morphology and microstructure induced in high quality fused silica by UV (355 nm) laser pulses at high fluence (10-45 J/cm{sup 2}) have been investigated using a suite of microscopic and spectroscopic tools. The laser beam has a near-Gaussian profile with a 1/e{sup 2} diameter of 0.98 mm at the sample plane and a pulse length FWHM (full width at half maximum) of 7.5 ns. The damage craters consist of a molten core region (thermal explosion), surrounded by a near concentric region of fractured material. The latter arises from propagation of lateral cracks induced by the laser-generated shock waves, whichmore » also compact the crater wall, {approx} 10 {micro}m thick and {approx} 20% higher in density. The size of the damage crater varies with laser fluence, number of pulses, and laser irradiation history. In the compaction layer, there is no detectable change in the Si/O stoichiometry to within {+-} 1.6% and no crystalline nano-particles of Si were observed. Micro- (1-10 {micro}m) and nano- (20-200 nm) cracks are found, however. A lower valence Si{sup 3+} species on the top 2-3 nm of the compaction layer is evident from the Si 2p XPS. The results are used to construct a physical model of the damage crater and to gain critical insight into laser damage process.« less
  • Point defects are induced in high quality optical-grade fused silica by high fluence (>30 J/cm{sup 2}) 355nm laser pulses. The microscopic depth distribution of laser irradiation induced defects has been nondestructively determined using Cathodoluminescence (CL) microanalysis. CL emissions have been observed at 1.9eV, 2.2eV, 2.7eV and 4.4eV. In addition following CO{sup 2} laser treatment for damage mitigation an emission at 3.2eV is also observed. The CL emissions have been identified with the NBOHC (non-bridging oxygen hole center), the STE (self-trapped exciton), an ODC (oxygen-deficient center) and an aluminum impurity centre. The spatially resolved CL data is consistent with damage initiationmore » at the exit surface. The concentration of 355 nm laser induced defects is greatest at the surface and monotonically decays to pre-irradiation levels at {approx}10 {micro}m depth below the surface. With CO{sup 2} processing to mitigate damage, the defect concentration and spatial distribution is reduced to a maximum depth of {approx}6{micro}m. CL microanalysis provides a sensitive and nondestructive method of assessing the magnitude and submicron distribution of irradiation induced damage in technologically important materials.« less
  • Here, we describe a damage testing system and its use in investigating laser-induced optical damage initiated by both intrinsic and extrinsic precursors on multilayer dielectric coatings suitable for use in high-energy, large-aperture petawatt-class lasers. We employ small-area damage test methodologies to evaluate the intrinsic damage resistance of various coatings as a function of deposition methods and coating materials under simulated use conditions. In addition, we demonstrate that damage initiation by raster scanning at lower fluences and growth threshold testing are required to probe the density of extrinsic defects, which will limit large-aperture optics performance.
  • We report multiphoton ionization experiments on H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} molecules at 1053- and 526.5-nm excitation wavelengths in the intensity range 5{times}10{sup 13}{endash}5{times}10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. The intensity dependence of the total ion yield, the dissociation fraction, and the photoelectron spectrum is investigated. At 1053 nm we find a strong isotope effect in the dissociation fraction, whereas at 526.5 nm no such effect is observed. Up to 1{times}10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} the photoelectron spectrum at 526.5 nm is dominated by resonant ionization processes via Rydberg states of the molecules. They are shifted into resonance at intensities above {approximately}10{sup 13}more » W/cm{sup 2}. The spectra show that the potential energy curves of the resonant states must have a shape very similar to the corresponding ionic ones. They are therefore mainly determined by the dipole coupling between the ion core orbitals 1{ital s}{sigma}{sub {ital g}} and 2{ital p}{sigma}{sub {ital u}}. At 1053 nm two photoionization regimes are observed: the multiphoton regime with Keldysh parameter {gamma}{gt}1 showing resonance ionization structures, and the tunnel regime ({gamma}{lt}1) at high intensity. The isotope effect in the dissociation fraction at 1053 nm has no influence on the shape of the corresponding photoelectron spectra at this wavelength. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}« less